The treatment protocol of 15 patients with a primary tumor of the femur, including osteosarcoma, malignant fibrous histiocytoma and chondrosar-coma is presented. All patients had been selected for resection and reconstruction with an endoprosthesis. An endoprothesis was implanted in 12 patients. The results of this type of treatment appear to be satisfactory. In eight osteosarcoma cases resection and reconstruction with an endoprosthesis combined with preoperative and postoperative chemotherapy, according to Rosen, were performed. Follow-up in all 15 patients, varying from 1.4 to 6.0 years, showed no evidence of disease in 12 patients. Three patients had died. Function of the involved leg was satisfactory in most cases. The advantage and disadvantages of the use of an endoprosthesis are discussed as well as complications in this series of patients.