This article presents the results of two studies on the use of school self‐evaluation in the Netherlands and Flanders. It focuses on which forms of instrumental use of school self‐evaluation results can be found in schools, and how differences in self‐evaluation use between schools can be explained. Results show that the instrumental use of self‐evaluation results in both contexts was limited. Results further show that differences in the use of school self‐evaluation results can be explained by differences in school organizational characteristics, implementation characteristics, and the characteristics of the school self‐evaluation itself. Implications for theory, policy, and practice are discussed.