Background: As more and more patients meeting the criteria for osteoporosis are referred to a fracture and osteoporosis outpatient clinic (FO clinic), the laboratory costs to screen for secondary osteoporosis also increases. This study was conducted to determine the value of screening on underlying diseases at an FO clinic by obtaining a standard set of laboratory tests. Methods: We included all 541 patients ≥50 years with a fracture referred to our FO clinic, during the period January 2005 to January 2007. The bone mineral density (BMD) was measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry and expressed as a T score. A standard set of laboratory tests was obtained to screen on underlying diseases. Results: Laboratory results were as often abnormal in patients with a normal BMD compared to patients with a low BMD. Underlying diseases were infrequently diagnosed. However, the prevalence of secondary osteoporosis in men was quite high, up to 18.2%. The costs to diagnose 1 patient with an underlying disease did vary between €92 and €972 depending on the group of patients described. Conclusion: Screening all patients, referred to an FO clinic, for underlying diseases by obtaining a standard set of laboratory tests is probably not useful since laboratory tests are as often abnormal in patients with a normal BMD compared to patients with a low BMD. Moreover, the prevalence of secondary osteoporosis is low, while laboratory costs are substantial.