Theoretical power density from salinity gradients using Reverse Electrodialysis

David Vermaas, E. Güler, Michel Saakes, Dorothea C. Nijmeijer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

118 Citations (Scopus)
145 Downloads (Pure)


Reverse electrodialysis (RED) is a technology to generate power from mixing waters with different salinity. The net power density (i.e. power per membrane area) is determined by 1) the membrane potential, 2) the ohmic resistance, 3) the resistance due to changing bulk concentrations, 4) the boundary layer resistance and 5) the power required to pump the feed water. Previous power density estimations often neglected the latter three terms. This paper provides a set of analytical equations to estimate the net power density obtainable from RED stacks with spacers and RED stacks with profiled membranes. With the current technology, the obtained maximum net power density is calculated at 2.7 W/m2. Higher power densities could be obtained by changing the cell design, in particular the membrane resistance and the cell length. Changing these parameters one and two orders of magnitude respectively, the calculated net power density is close to 20 W/m2
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)170-184
JournalEnergy procedia
Publication statusPublished - 2012


  • IR-84850
  • METIS-291571


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