The preparation and characterisation of nanometre TiO2 powder materials, prepared by the sol-gel method, are described. Controlled hydrolysis of a titanium-2-methyl-2-butoxide precursor was applied to obtain alcosols with particles (in alcohol) smaller than 5 nm. Powders obtained from this sol were heat treated and characterised by means of X-ray diffraction, differential calorimetry, thermogravimetry and N2 adsorption. TiO2 particles grew during annealing. Ce addition decreased the growth rate.
Koebrugge, G. W., Winnubst, L., & Burggraaf, A. J. (1993). Thermal stability of nanostructured titania and titania-ceria ceramic powders prepared by the sol-gel process. Journal of materials chemistry, 3(11), 1095-1100. https://doi.org/10.1039/JM9930301095