This paper describes the development of ISFETs in an historical setting, but is not limited to that. Based on the development regarding the theory, the technology, the instrumentation and the experience with many specific applications, also future projects are defined, such as concerning cell acidification, REFET biasing and a complete new range of FET sensors based on local pressure induction by (bio)chemical interaction with immobilised charged molecules (hydrogels). Also the present patent and market position is discussed. It is concluded that in the past 30 years the ISFET research and development made continuous progress on a regular base, but the practical applications stayed behind, especially concerning the dynamic use of ISFETs in combination with an integrated pH actuator. The newly proposed research projects may be good for an other 30 years.
- Chemical sensors