Research on photoacoustic imaging (PAI) using a handheld integrated photoacoustic probe has been a recent focus of clinical translation of this imaging technique. One of the remaining challenges is the occurrence of out-of-plane artifacts (OPAs) in such a probe. Previously, we proposed a method to identify and remove OPAs by axially displacing the transducer array. Here we show that besides the benefit of removing OPAs from the imaging plane, the proposed method can provide a three-dimensional (3D) view of the OPAs. In this work, we present a 3D reconstruction method using axial transducer array displacement. By axially displacing the transducer array, out-of-plane absorbers can be three-dimensionally visualized at an elevation distance of up to the acquired imaging depth. Additionally, OPAs in the in-plane image are significantly reduced. We experimentally demonstrate the method with phantom and in vivo experiments using an integrated PAI probe. We also compare the method with elevational transducer array displacement and take into account the sensitivity of the transducer array in the 3D reconstruction.
- Linear array
- Out-of-plane artifact
- Three-dimensional reconstruction