Three‐dimensional Membranes for Artificial Lungs: Comparison of Flow‐Induced Hemolysis

Felix Hesselmann*, Daniel Arnemann, Patrick Bongartz, Matthias Wessling, Christian Cornelissen, Thomas Schmitz-Rode, Ulrich Steinseifer, Sebastian V. Jansen, Jutta Arens

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)
81 Downloads (Pure)


Background: Membranes based on triply periodic minimal surfaces (TPMS)
have proven a superior gas transfer compared to the contemporary hollow fiber
membrane (HFM) design in artificial lungs. The improved oxygen transfer is
attributed to disrupting the laminar boundary layer adjacent to the membrane
surface known as main limiting factor to mass transport. However, it requires
experimental proof that this improvement is not at the expense of greater damage to the blood. Hence, the aim of this work is a valid statement regarding the structure-dependent hemolytic behavior of TPMS structures compared to the
current HFM design.

Methods: Hemolysis tests were performed on structure samples of three different kind of TPMS-based designs (Schwarz-P, Schwarz-D and Schoen’s Gyroid) in direct comparison to a hollow fiber structure as reference.

Results: The results of this study suggest that the difference in hemolysis between TPMS membranes compared to HFMs is small although slightly increased for the TPMS membranes. There is no significant difference between the TPMS structures and the hollow fiber design. Nevertheless, the ratio between
the achieved additional oxygen transfer and the additional hemolysis favors the
TPMS-based membrane shapes.

Conclusion: TPMS-shaped membranes offer a safe way to improve gas transfer
in artificial lungs.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)412-426
Number of pages15
JournalArtificial organs
Issue number3
Early online date4 Oct 2021
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2022


  • Artificial lung
  • Hemolysis
  • In vitro test
  • Pressure loss
  • Three-dimensional membrane
  • TPMS


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