Time-Resolved Small-Angle X-Ray Scattering

Johan E. ten Elshof*, R. Besselink, Tomasz Stawski, H.L. Castricum

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterAcademicpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


This chapter focuses on time-resolved studies of nanostructure development in sol-gel liquids, that is, diluted sols, wet gels, and drying thin fffilms. The most commonly investigated classes of sol-gel materials are silica, organically modified silica, template-directed mesostructured silica, titania and titania-based materials, zirconia and zirconia-based materials, and few others. After a brief overview of small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) theory and some experimental details, the chapter discusses separately each of these classes of sol-gel materials. Nearly all time-resolved SAXS studies on silica have been carried out starting with alkoxysilanes. The chapter discusses studies of systems with a single precursor under acidic and basic conditions, respectively, and reviews combinations of alkoxysilanes with other metal precursors and mixed organic-inorganic systems.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationThe Sol-Gel Handbook. Synthesis, Characterization, and Applications
EditorsD. Levy, M. Zayat
Place of PublicationWeinheim
PublisherWiley-VCH Verlag
Number of pages40
ISBN (Electronic)9783527670819
ISBN (Print)978-3-527-33486-5
Publication statusPublished - 14 Sep 2015

Publication series

NameChapter 21
PublisherWiley VCH


  • Mesostructured silica
  • Organically modified silica
  • SAXS experiments
  • Sol-gel systems
  • Time-resolved small-angle X-ray scattering
  • Time-resolved studies
  • Titanates
  • Zirconates

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