Ti3C2 MXene Membranes for Gas Separation: Influence of Heat Treatment Conditions on D-Spacing and Surface Functionalization

Aline Alencar Emerenciano*, Rubens Maribondo do Nascimento, Ana Paula Cysne Barbosa, Ke Ran, Wilhelm Albert Meulenberg, Jesus Gonzalez-Julian

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)
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Two-dimensional (2D) MXene materials have recently been the focus of membrane research due to their unique properties, such as their single-atomic-layer thickness, flexibility, molecular filtration abilities and microstructural similarities with graphene, which is currently the most efficient precursor material for gas separation applications. In addition, the potential to process nanoscale channels has motivated investigations of parameters which can improve membrane permeability and selectivity. Interlayer spacing and defects, which are still challenging to control, are among the most crucial parameters for membrane performance. Herein, the effect of heat treatment on the d-spacing of MXene nanosheets and the surface functionalization of nanolayers was shown regarding its impact on the gas diffusion mechanism. The distance of the layers was reduced by a factor of over 10 from 0.345 nm to 0.024 nm, the defects were reduced, and the surface functionalization was maintained upon treatment of the Ti3C2 membrane at 500 °C under an Ar/H2 atmosphere as compared to 80 °C under vacuum. This led to a change from Knudsen diffusion to molecular sieving, as demonstrated by single-gas permeation tests at room temperature. Overall, this work shows a simple and promising way to improve H2/CO2 selectivity via temperature treatment under a controlled atmosphere.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1025
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 21 Oct 2022


  • d-spacing control
  • gas separation membrane
  • H/CO selectivity
  • sieving membrane
  • TiC MXenes

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