Tool-ply interaction in the formation of waviness during C/PEEK consolidation

E.T.M. Krämer, W.J.B. Grouve, L.L. Warnet, S. Koussios, R. Akkerman*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)
143 Downloads (Pure)


It is well established that fiber waviness in continuous fiber-reinforced polymer composites is a defect rather than an aesthetic flaw, as it potentially leads to a severe knockdown of the mechanical properties. Consequently, it is desirable to minimize or prevent fiber waviness during processing. This research explored experimentally the influence of tool material, release media and laminate size on the formation of in-plane fiber waviness during C/PEEK consolidation. The formed waviness was quantified and correlated to the measured tool-ply friction coefficients and thermal coefficients of expansion of the tool plates. This research provides additional evidence that tool shrinkage is the driving force for waviness formation in C/PEEK laminate consolidation. Furthermore, the formation of waviness depends on the balance between the coefficient of thermal expansion of the tool, the tool-ply coefficient of friction and the laminate size.

Original languageEnglish
Article number106327
Number of pages8
JournalComposites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing
Early online date21 Feb 2021
Publication statusPublished - May 2021


  • C/PEEK
  • Composites
  • Thermoplastic
  • Tool-ply friction
  • Waviness


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