Toward 100% sustainable energy production and a structural decrease in energy demand: Curaçao, as a case study of small island developing states

Richenel Romualdo Bulbaai

    Research output: ThesisPhD Thesis - Research UT, graduation UT

    1206 Downloads (Pure)


    The exploitation of fossil fuels is generally considered to be the largest source of global greenhouse gas emissions. Furthermore, fossil fuels are also considered as a finite source of energy. Electricity production in Small Island Development States (SIDS) remains heavily dependent on imported fossil fuels. In 2009, 98% of the electricity supplied in the Caribbean SIDS was produced from fossil fuels.

    The island of Curaçao can be considered as unusual among SIDS in that it already uses significant renewable energy sources. In contrast to most countries in the world, approximately 34% of the current electricity production in Curaçao is generated by wind and solar energy.

    A specific task for the electricity production company in Curaçao will be to replace more than half of its current non-renewable energy plants in the coming decade as they come to the end of their useful life. This necessary replacement can be seen as an opportunity to investigate the possibilities to further increase the renewable energy contribution on the island of Curaçao. This would lead to greater self-sufficiency and a substantial decrease in imported fossil fuels. The aim of this PhD research has been to create a better understanding of the possibilities for SIDS in general, and Curaçao in particular, to realize a significant sustainable energy production and also a structural decrease in energy demand.

    Consequently, the main research question set and answered in this PhD thesis is:
    How to improve energy efficiency in Curaçao and realize a 100% renewable energy production system for Curaçao?

    Implementation of the findings and suggested approaches included in this PhD thesis will change Curaçao, by 2033, into an island whose electricity plants are based on a fully sustainable energy production system. In addition, implementing the proposed roadmap to achieve a sustainable energy production system in Curaçao will reduce CO2 emissions by approximately 92%.
    Original languageEnglish
    QualificationDoctor of Philosophy
    Awarding Institution
    • University of Twente
    • Halman, Johannes I.M., Supervisor
    • Bhochhibhoya, S., Co-Supervisor
    • Entrop, A.G., Co-Supervisor
    Award date11 Oct 2019
    Place of PublicationEnschede
    Print ISBNs978-94-028-1721-8
    Publication statusPublished - 11 Oct 2019


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