Abstract
Finite element (FE) simulations are used extensively during the tool design stage to predict the springback; it can then be compensated for by adapting the tool’s geometry. The tool is adapted in such a way that the formed product takes the intended shape after springback. In order to accurately predict springback and compensate for it correctly, constitutive models are needed to accurately describe the material mechanics.
In this thesis, specific attention has been paid to the unloading behavior of advanced high strength steels (AHSS). Springback is governed by the stress–strain behavior of the material during unloading when the forming forces are removed. Therefore, modeling the unloading behavior of the material is of a great importance to springback prediction.
It is generally accepted that the springback of the deformed material is driven solely by the recovery of elastic strain upon unloading; however, experimental evidence has shown that this is an invalid assumption. It has widely been observed that a plastically deformed material shows a nonlinear unloading/reloading behavior. Considering that the springback is governed by the total recovered strain upon unloading of the deformed part, modeling the unloading behavior is essential for an accurate springback prediction.
In this research, the main mechanisms responsible for the observed nonlinear unloading/reloading behavior are studied. This is carried out by performing a combination of theoretical, experimental and numerical studies on DP600 and DP800 from the family of AHSS.
To understand the physics of the nonlinear unloading/reloading behavior, uniaxial tensile tests are conducted. It is observed that the unloading/reloading behavior of the material is complex, showing direction dependency, time dependent behavior and sensitivity to baking treatment.
Based on the experimental results, it is concluded that there are two potential mechanisms behind the nonlinear unloading/reloading behavior: 1. dislocation driven anelasticity and 2. inhomogeneous deformation at the microscale. Accordingly, based on each theory, constitutive models were developed to predict the material behavior during unloading. The drawbend experiments are simulated using the newly developed models and the results are compared with the classical Emodulus degradation model and the case where the Emodulus is taken as a constant. The results show that modeling the nonlinear unloading/reloading behavior results in a more accurate springback prediction in comparison with the classical approaches.
In this thesis, specific attention has been paid to the unloading behavior of advanced high strength steels (AHSS). Springback is governed by the stress–strain behavior of the material during unloading when the forming forces are removed. Therefore, modeling the unloading behavior of the material is of a great importance to springback prediction.
It is generally accepted that the springback of the deformed material is driven solely by the recovery of elastic strain upon unloading; however, experimental evidence has shown that this is an invalid assumption. It has widely been observed that a plastically deformed material shows a nonlinear unloading/reloading behavior. Considering that the springback is governed by the total recovered strain upon unloading of the deformed part, modeling the unloading behavior is essential for an accurate springback prediction.
In this research, the main mechanisms responsible for the observed nonlinear unloading/reloading behavior are studied. This is carried out by performing a combination of theoretical, experimental and numerical studies on DP600 and DP800 from the family of AHSS.
To understand the physics of the nonlinear unloading/reloading behavior, uniaxial tensile tests are conducted. It is observed that the unloading/reloading behavior of the material is complex, showing direction dependency, time dependent behavior and sensitivity to baking treatment.
Based on the experimental results, it is concluded that there are two potential mechanisms behind the nonlinear unloading/reloading behavior: 1. dislocation driven anelasticity and 2. inhomogeneous deformation at the microscale. Accordingly, based on each theory, constitutive models were developed to predict the material behavior during unloading. The drawbend experiments are simulated using the newly developed models and the results are compared with the classical Emodulus degradation model and the case where the Emodulus is taken as a constant. The results show that modeling the nonlinear unloading/reloading behavior results in a more accurate springback prediction in comparison with the classical approaches.
Original language  English 

Awarding Institution 

Supervisors/Advisors 

Award date  25 Oct 2018 
Place of Publication  Enschede 
Publisher  
Print ISBNs  9789036546287 
DOIs  
Publication status  Published  25 Oct 2018 
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Torkabadi, A. (2018). Towards an accurate springback prediction: experiments and modeling. Enschede: University of Twente. https://doi.org/10.3990/1.9789036546287