Towards surface analysis on diabetic feet soles to predict ulcerations using photometric stereo

Chanjuan Liu, Ferdi van der Heijden, Jaap J. van Netten

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionAcademic

    2 Citations (Scopus)


    Diabetic foot ulceration is a major complication for patients with diabetes mellitus. Approximately 15% to 25% of patients with Type I and Type II diabetes eventually develop feet ulcers. If not adequately treated, these ulcers may lead to foot infection, and ultimately to total (or partial) lower extremity amputation, which means a great loss in health-related quality of life. The incidence of foot ulcers may be prevented by early identification and subsequent treatment of pre-signs of ulceration, such as callus formation, redness, fissures, and blisters. Therefore, frequent examination of the feet is necessary, preferably on a daily basis. However, self-examination is difficult or impossible due to consequences of the diabetes. Moreover, frequent examination by health care professionals is costly and not feasible. The objective of our project is to develop an intelligent telemedicine monitoring system that can be deployed at the patients' home environment for frequent examination of patients feet, to timely detect pre-signs of ulceration. The current paper reports the preliminary results of an implementation of a photometric stereo imaging system to detect 3D geometric abnormalities of the skin surfaces of foot soles. Using a flexible experimental setup, the system parameters such as number and positions of the illuminators have been selected so as to optimize the performance with respect to reconstructed surface. The system has been applied to a dummy foot sole. Finally, the curvature on the resulting 3D topography of the foot sole is implemented to show the feasibility of detecting the pre-signs of ulceration using photometric stereo imaging. The obtained results indicate clinical potential of this technology for detecting the pre-signs of ulceration on diabetic feet soles.
    Original languageEnglish
    Title of host publicationAdvanced Biomedical and Clinical Diagnostic Systems X
    EditorsTuan Vo-Dinh, Anita Mahadevan-Jansen, Warren Grundfest
    Number of pages12
    ISBN (Print)978-0-81948-857-2
    Publication statusPublished - 13 Feb 2012
    EventAdvanced Biomedical and Clinical Diagnostic Systems X 2012 - San Francisco, United States
    Duration: 22 Jan 201226 Jan 2012
    Conference number: 10

    Publication series

    NameProceedings of SPIE
    PublisherSPIE Press


    ConferenceAdvanced Biomedical and Clinical Diagnostic Systems X 2012
    Country/TerritoryUnited States
    CitySan Francisco


    • METIS-296037
    • EWI-21508
    • IR-80654


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