Towards understanding recovery of hot-carrier induced degradation

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Abstract

This article treats the recovery of hot-carrier degraded nMOSFETs by annealing in a nitrogen ambient. The recovery rate is investigated as a function of the annealing temperature, where the recovery for increasing temperatures is in agreement with the passivation processes. At the original post-metal anneal temperature of T = 400 °C, the device's original performance is fully restored. Higher temperatures induce a permanent, unrecoverable change to the devices, manifested in a gradual VT shift. The recovery rate is found to be independent of both the transistor gate length and the cooling rate (quench, slow and stepped cooling) upon annealing. These findings are used to gain further understanding of the mechanisms behind the recovery of hot-carrier damage. The recovery rate exhibits Arrhenius behavior and the recovery data are consistent with Stesmans’ recovery model.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)147-151
Number of pages5
JournalMicroelectronics reliability
Volume88-90
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 30 Sep 2018

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Hot carriers
recovery
degradation
Recovery
Degradation
Annealing
annealing
Cooling
cooling
Temperature
Passivation
passivity
temperature
Transistors
transistors
Nitrogen
Metals
damage
nitrogen
shift

Keywords

  • Hot-carrier injection
  • Hydrogen
  • Passivation
  • Recovery
  • Annealing

Cite this

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title = "Towards understanding recovery of hot-carrier induced degradation",
abstract = "This article treats the recovery of hot-carrier degraded nMOSFETs by annealing in a nitrogen ambient. The recovery rate is investigated as a function of the annealing temperature, where the recovery for increasing temperatures is in agreement with the passivation processes. At the original post-metal anneal temperature of T = 400 °C, the device's original performance is fully restored. Higher temperatures induce a permanent, unrecoverable change to the devices, manifested in a gradual VT shift. The recovery rate is found to be independent of both the transistor gate length and the cooling rate (quench, slow and stepped cooling) upon annealing. These findings are used to gain further understanding of the mechanisms behind the recovery of hot-carrier damage. The recovery rate exhibits Arrhenius behavior and the recovery data are consistent with Stesmans’ recovery model.",
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author = "{de Jong}, {Maurits J.} and Cora Salm and Jurriaan Schmitz",
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language = "English",
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Towards understanding recovery of hot-carrier induced degradation. / de Jong, Maurits J. (Corresponding Author); Salm, Cora; Schmitz, Jurriaan.

In: Microelectronics reliability, Vol. 88-90, 30.09.2018, p. 147-151.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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AB - This article treats the recovery of hot-carrier degraded nMOSFETs by annealing in a nitrogen ambient. The recovery rate is investigated as a function of the annealing temperature, where the recovery for increasing temperatures is in agreement with the passivation processes. At the original post-metal anneal temperature of T = 400 °C, the device's original performance is fully restored. Higher temperatures induce a permanent, unrecoverable change to the devices, manifested in a gradual VT shift. The recovery rate is found to be independent of both the transistor gate length and the cooling rate (quench, slow and stepped cooling) upon annealing. These findings are used to gain further understanding of the mechanisms behind the recovery of hot-carrier damage. The recovery rate exhibits Arrhenius behavior and the recovery data are consistent with Stesmans’ recovery model.

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