In this work we show that the electrical resistance of ion exchange membranes strongly depends on the solution concentration: especially at low solution concentrations (<0.1 M NaCl) we observe a very strong increase in electrical resistance of the membrane with decreasing concentration. To understand and clarify this behavior we systematically investigate the influence of the solution concentration on ion transport phenomena in two anion exchange membranes (Neosepta AMX and Fumasep FAD) and two cation exchange membranes (Neosepta CMX and Fumasep FKD) in the concentration range from 0.017 M to 0.5 M NaCl and for different hydrodynamic conditions. The results are highly valuable for processes that operate in the low concentration range (<0.5 M) such as reverse electrodialysis, electrodialysis, microbial fuel cells and capacitive deionization, where the standard membrane characterization values as usually determined in 0.5 M NaCl solutions do not represent the practical application.
Dlugolecki, P. E., Anet, B., Metz, S. J., Nijmeijer, D. C., & Wessling, M. (2010). Transport limitations in ion exchange membranes at low salt concentrations. Journal of membrane science, 346(1), 163-171. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.memsci.2009.09.033