Triana: a control strategy for Smart Grids: Forecasting, planning & real-time control

Vincent Bakker

Research output: ThesisPhD Thesis - Research UT, graduation UT

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Increasing demand, extra fluctuation and a large share of distributed electricity generation will put more stress on the electricity supply chain. Therefore, changes are required in the supply chain to maintain a properly functioning, stable and affordable grid. Currently the supply chain is completely driven by demand by constantly adapting the production to the demand. The exploitation of flexibility on the demand side of the supply chain allows for a more efficient and sustainable electricity production. Techniques like controllable distributed generation, distributed storage, and smart appliances can introduce this required flexibility. To exploit the new flexibility, the grid has to become more intelligent, i.e. become a Smart Grid. In this thesis TRIANA, a three step control strategy for the Smart Grid is presented. In this first step of TRIANA, the forecasting step, the scheduling freedom (flexibility) of a device is determined for each individual device by a local controller. In the second step, a (central) planner tries to exploit the freedom of the devices determined in the first step for his objective. The last step of TRIANA is the real-time control step performed by the local controller achieving the planning in the best possible way. In order to analyze the impact of control methodologies for Smart Grid, a simulator based on an energy model has been built. The basic elements of the model are individual devices and between devices energy streams are defined. The energy streams are connected via so called pools, which represent the physical connections between the devices. To study the effectiveness of the control methodology and study the most economic use of the flexibility of devices, multiple scenarios have been simulated. Simulations show that TRIANA can optimize the energy flows and can control the operation of the domestic devices in an economic manner without discomfort for the residents. TRIANA is a methodology capable of adjusting the energy profiles. It can autonomously determine and exploit the optimization potential of a large group of buildings. The combination of forecasting, planning and realtime control is a promising direction for control methodologies for Smart Grids: it is scalable, generic and reliable.
Original languageEnglish
QualificationDoctor of Philosophy
Awarding Institution
  • University of Twente
  • Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria, Supervisor
  • Hurink, Johann L., Supervisor
Thesis sponsors
Award date13 Jan 2012
Place of PublicationEnschede
Print ISBNs978-90-365-3314-0
Publication statusPublished - 13 Jan 2012


  • IR-79201
  • DG
  • DER
  • EWI-21154
  • Smart Grids
  • DEG
  • Control Methology
  • Demand Side Management
  • DS
  • Distributed Generation
  • Distributed Storage
  • virtual power plant
  • METIS-284959


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