Turning Shortcomings into Challenges: Brain-Computer Interfaces for Games

Antinus Nijholt, D. Plass - Oude Bos, B. Reuderink

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

    168 Citations (Scopus)


    In recent years we have seen a rising interest in brain-computer interfacing for human-computer interaction and potential game applications. Until now, however, we have almost only seen proof-of-concepts where a single BCI paradigm is demonstrated to work as a simple control mechanism, as a measurement of user state, or for neurofeedback. There have hardly been any attempts to design BCI games where BCI is considered to be one of multiple possible input modalities (together with keyboard, speech, gestures, etc.) that can be used to control the game. One reason may be that research still follows the paradigms of the traditional, medically oriented, BCI approaches. In this paper we discuss current BCI research from the viewpoint of games and game design. It is hoped that this survey will make clear that we need to design different games than we used to, but that such games can nevertheless be interesting and exciting.
    Original languageUndefined
    Article number10.1016/j.entcom.2009.09.007
    Pages (from-to)85-94
    Number of pages10
    JournalEntertainment computing
    Issue number2
    Publication statusPublished - 2009


    • EWI-16051
    • HMI-IE: Information Engineering
    • Game Design
    • IR-68743
    • Brain-Computer Interfacing
    • Multi-modal interaction
    • METIS-264422

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