We have investigated the effect of cohesion and drag models on the bed hydrodynamics of Geldart A particles based on the two-fluid (TF) model. For a high gas velocity U0 = 0.03 m/s, we found a transition from the homogeneous fluidization to bubbling fluidization with an increase of the coefficient C1, which is used to account for the contribution of cohesion to the excess compressibility. Thus cohesion can play a role in the bed expansion of Geldart A particles. Apart from cohesion, we have also investigated the influence of the drag models. When using the Wen and Yu drag correlation with an exponent n = 4.65, we find an under-prediction of the bed expansion at low gas velocities (U0 = 0.009 m/s). When using a larger exponent (n = 9.6), as reported in experimental studies of gas-fluidization, a much better agreement with the experimental bed expansion is obtained. These findings suggest that at low gas velocity, a scale-down of the commonly used drag model is required. On the other hand, a scale-up of the commonly used drag model is necessary at high gas velocity (U0 = 0.2 and 0.06 m/s). We therefore conclude that scaling the drag force represent only an ad hoc way of repairing the deficiencies of the TF model, and that a far more detailed study is required into the origin of the failure of the TF model for simulating fluidized beds of fine powders.
Ye, M., Ye, M., Wang, J., van der Hoef, M. A., & Kuipers, J. A. M. (2008). Two-fluid modeling of Geldart A particles in gas-fluidized beds. Particuology, 6(6), 540-548. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.partic.2008.07.005