Two-phase closed thermosyphons: A review of studies and solar applications

Davoud Jafari, Alessandro Franco, Sauro Filippeschi, Paolo Di Marco

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

219 Citations (Scopus)
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The use of the two-phase closed thermosyphons (TPCTs) is increasing for many heat transfer applications. This paper reviews the most recent published experimental and theoretical studies on the TPCT. After a description of the TPCT operating principle and the performance characteristics, the heat transfer analysis in condenser and evaporator sections that depends on the complex two-phase process are described. The influence of the affecting parameters on the performance of TPCTs such as the geometry (diameter, shape and length), the inclination angle, the filling ratio (FR), the working fluid, the operating temperature and pressure analyzed by various researchers is discussed. The various operating limits occurring in a thermosyphon includes viscous, sonic, dryout, boiling and flooding are also analyzed. Considering the application of TPCTs, the paper presents a review of experimental tests and applications. This paper can be used as the starting point for the researcher interested in the TPCTs and their renewable energy applications.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)575-593
JournalRenewable & sustainable energy reviews
Publication statusPublished - 2016
Externally publishedYes


  • Two-phase closed thermosyphon
  • Operating limits
  • Numerical modeling
  • Experimental


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