Ultrasound is known to enhance surface bubble growth and removal in catalytic and microfluidic applications, yet the contributions of rectified diffusion and microstreaming phenomena toward mass transfer remain unclear. We quantify the effect of ultrasound on the diffusive growth of a single spherical CO2 bubble growing on a substrate in supersaturated water. The time-dependent bubble size, shape, oscillation amplitude, and microstreaming flow field are resolved. We show and explain how ultrasound can enhance the diffusive growth of surface bubbles by up to two orders of magnitude during volumetric resonance. The proximity of the wall forces the bubble to oscillate nonspherically, thereby generating vigorous streaming during resonance that results in convection-dominated growth.