Unconventional Electrochemistry in Micro-/Nanofluidic Systems

S. Sarkar, Stanley Lai, Serge Joseph Guy Lemay

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

15 Citations (Scopus)
196 Downloads (Pure)


Electrochemistry is ideally suited to serve as a detection mechanism in miniaturized analysis systems. A significant hurdle can, however, be the implementation of reliable micrometer-scale reference electrodes. In this tutorial review, we introduce the principal challenges and discuss the approaches that have been employed to build suitable references. We then discuss several alternative strategies aimed at eliminating the reference electrode altogether, in particular two-electrode electrochemical cells, bipolar electrodes and chronopotentiometry.
Original languageEnglish
Article number81
Pages (from-to)-
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2016


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