Under which conditions does ICT have a positive effect on teaching and learning?’ This was the leading question of the International EDUsummIT in The Hague, the Netherlands. The bases for the discussion were the scholarly findings of the International Handbook of Information Technology in Primary and Secondary Education, a synthesis of research in the field of information and communication technology (ICT) in education. Seventy international policymakers, researchers, and practitioners developed a Call to Action, which summarizes the main action points where policy, research, and leadership need to join forces in order to successfully implement ICT in educational practice. These main action points include a view on the role of ICT in 21st century learning; conditions for realizing the potential of multiple technologies to address individual needs of students; better understanding of the relationship between formal and informal learning; the implications of technology for student assessment; the need for models for leadership and teacher learning to successfully implement technology; the potential of ICT for digital equity; and the development of a list of essential conditions to ensure benefit from ICT investments. In this contribution, we present the Call to Action and synthesize the research on which the Call is based.