Understanding and managing three-dimensional/four-dimensional model implementations at the project team level

Timo Hartmann, R. Levitt

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)
142 Downloads (Pure)


This paper introduces an extant, theoretical, social-psychological model that explains the sense-making processes of project managers confronted with a new technology to improve our understanding of project-based innovation processes. The model represents the interlinked processes through which project managers decide to implement new technologies on their projects according to the outcomes of these sense-making processes. The paper validates the model against observations gathered in four case studies of technology implementation on construction projects. Doing so, it assesses the general usefulness of the model to explain the success of technology implementation dynamics in project teams. The paper also derives a number of management suggestions from the model: for example, project managers should focus squarely on the immediate benefits of the technology in improving work processes on the project instead of focusing on long-term strategic firm or industry benefits.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)757-767
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of construction engineering and management
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 2010


  • Decision support systems
  • Implementation
  • Technology
  • Case reports
  • METIS-256398
  • IR-86458
  • Social factors


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