Understanding the differential impacts of two antidepressants on locomotion of freshwater snails (Lymnaea stagnalis)

Nandini Vasantha Raman, Asmita Dubey*, Ellen van Donk, Eric von Elert, Miquel Lürling, Tânia V. Fernandes, Lisette N. de Senerpont Domis

*Corresponding author for this work

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Abstract

There is growing evidence of negative impacts of antidepressants on behavior of aquatic non-target organisms. Accurate environmental risk assessment requires an understanding of whether antidepressants with similar modes of action have consistent negative impacts. Here, we tested the effect of acute exposure to two antidepressants, fluoxetine and venlafaxine (0–50 µg/L), on the behavior of non-target organism, i.e., freshwater pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis. As compounds interact with chemical cues in the aquatic ecosystems, we also tested whether the effects altered in the presence of bile extract containing 5α-cyprinol sulfate (5α-CPS), a characterized kairomone of a natural predator, common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Behavior was studied using automated tracking and analysis of various locomotion parameters of L. stagnalis. Our results suggest that there are differences in the effects on locomotion upon exposure to venlafaxine and fluoxetine. We found strong evidence for a non-monotonic dose response on venlafaxine exposure, whereas fluoxetine only showed weak evidence of altered locomotion for a specific concentration. Combined exposure to compounds and 5α-CPS reduced the intensity of effects observed in the absence of 5α-CPS, possibly due to reduced bioavailability of the compounds. The results highlight the need for acknowledging different mechanisms of action among antidepressants while investigating their environmental risks. In addition, our results underline the importance of reporting non-significant effects and acknowledging individual variation in behavior for environmental risk assessment. Graphical Abstract: (Figure presented.)

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)12406-12421
Number of pages16
JournalEnvironmental science and pollution research
Volume31
Early online date17 Jan 2024
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2024

Keywords

  • ITC-ISI-JOURNAL-ARTICLE
  • ITC-HYBRID

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