Evaluating quality of experience in video streaming services requires a quality metric that works in real time and for a broad range of video types and network conditions. This means that, subjective video quality assessment studies, or complex objective video quality assessment metrics, which would be best suited from the accuracy perspective, cannot be used for this tasks (due to their high requirements in terms of time and complexity, in addition to their lack of scalability). In this paper we propose a light-weight No Reference (NR) method that, by means of unsupervised machine learning techniques and measurements on the client side is able to assess quality in real-time, accurately and in an adaptable and scalable manner. Our method makes use of the excellent density estimation capabilities of the unsupervised deep learning techniques, the restricted Boltzmann machines, and light-weight video features computed just on the impaired video to provide a delta of quality degradation. We have tested our approach in two network impaired video sets, the LIMP and the ReTRiEVED video quality databases, benchmarking the results of our method against the well-known full reference metric VQM. We have obtained levels of accuracy of at least 85% in both datasets using all possible cases.
- Deep learning
- No-reference video quality assessment
- Quality of experience
- Unsupervised machine learning