Use of selective anodic bonding to create micropump chambers with virtually no dead volume

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Abstract

Membrane micropump chambers of 11 mm diam with virtually zero dead volume were realized using selective anodic bonding. The selective bonding was achieved with less than 1 nm thick metallic antibonding layers on the glass wafer. Experiments were carried out to come to a better understanding of the selective anodic bonding process. It was concluded that a conductive antibonding layer on the glass wafer prevents the formation of a bond, because in that case the electrostatic attraction between the Pyrex and silicon wafers will vanish upon contact. Chromium and Platinum were found to be suitable antibonding layers. Furthermore, it was found that during the anodic bonding process, the transport of oxygen ions from Pyrex toward the silicon-Pyrex interface results in the formation of SiO2, which forms the actual bond between both substrates. At positions of an intermediate antibonding layer the oxygen ions form oxygen gas. The Pyrex or silicon substrate may deform locally due to the buildup of oxygen gas pressure. This can be prevented by adding a gas outlet to the design. ©2001 The Electrochemical Society. All rights reserved.
Original languageUndefined
Pages (from-to)G68-G72
JournalJournal of the Electrochemical Society
Volume148
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2001

Keywords

  • METIS-200128
  • IR-42005

Cite this

@article{de0783de47b845d6b86896c21737e725,
title = "Use of selective anodic bonding to create micropump chambers with virtually no dead volume",
abstract = "Membrane micropump chambers of 11 mm diam with virtually zero dead volume were realized using selective anodic bonding. The selective bonding was achieved with less than 1 nm thick metallic antibonding layers on the glass wafer. Experiments were carried out to come to a better understanding of the selective anodic bonding process. It was concluded that a conductive antibonding layer on the glass wafer prevents the formation of a bond, because in that case the electrostatic attraction between the Pyrex and silicon wafers will vanish upon contact. Chromium and Platinum were found to be suitable antibonding layers. Furthermore, it was found that during the anodic bonding process, the transport of oxygen ions from Pyrex toward the silicon-Pyrex interface results in the formation of SiO2, which forms the actual bond between both substrates. At positions of an intermediate antibonding layer the oxygen ions form oxygen gas. The Pyrex or silicon substrate may deform locally due to the buildup of oxygen gas pressure. This can be prevented by adding a gas outlet to the design. {\circledC}2001 The Electrochemical Society. All rights reserved.",
keywords = "METIS-200128, IR-42005",
author = "T.T. Veenstra and Berenschot, {Johan W.} and Gardeniers, {Johannes G.E.} and Sanders, {Remco G.P.} and Elwenspoek, {Michael Curt} and {van den Berg}, Albert",
year = "2001",
doi = "10.1149/1.1339873",
language = "Undefined",
volume = "148",
pages = "G68--G72",
journal = "Journal of the Electrochemical Society",
issn = "0013-4651",
publisher = "The Electrochemical Society Inc.",
number = "2",

}

Use of selective anodic bonding to create micropump chambers with virtually no dead volume. / Veenstra, T.T.; Berenschot, Johan W.; Gardeniers, Johannes G.E.; Sanders, Remco G.P.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt; van den Berg, Albert.

In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, Vol. 148, No. 2, 2001, p. G68-G72.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Use of selective anodic bonding to create micropump chambers with virtually no dead volume

AU - Veenstra, T.T.

AU - Berenschot, Johan W.

AU - Gardeniers, Johannes G.E.

AU - Sanders, Remco G.P.

AU - Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

AU - van den Berg, Albert

PY - 2001

Y1 - 2001

N2 - Membrane micropump chambers of 11 mm diam with virtually zero dead volume were realized using selective anodic bonding. The selective bonding was achieved with less than 1 nm thick metallic antibonding layers on the glass wafer. Experiments were carried out to come to a better understanding of the selective anodic bonding process. It was concluded that a conductive antibonding layer on the glass wafer prevents the formation of a bond, because in that case the electrostatic attraction between the Pyrex and silicon wafers will vanish upon contact. Chromium and Platinum were found to be suitable antibonding layers. Furthermore, it was found that during the anodic bonding process, the transport of oxygen ions from Pyrex toward the silicon-Pyrex interface results in the formation of SiO2, which forms the actual bond between both substrates. At positions of an intermediate antibonding layer the oxygen ions form oxygen gas. The Pyrex or silicon substrate may deform locally due to the buildup of oxygen gas pressure. This can be prevented by adding a gas outlet to the design. ©2001 The Electrochemical Society. All rights reserved.

AB - Membrane micropump chambers of 11 mm diam with virtually zero dead volume were realized using selective anodic bonding. The selective bonding was achieved with less than 1 nm thick metallic antibonding layers on the glass wafer. Experiments were carried out to come to a better understanding of the selective anodic bonding process. It was concluded that a conductive antibonding layer on the glass wafer prevents the formation of a bond, because in that case the electrostatic attraction between the Pyrex and silicon wafers will vanish upon contact. Chromium and Platinum were found to be suitable antibonding layers. Furthermore, it was found that during the anodic bonding process, the transport of oxygen ions from Pyrex toward the silicon-Pyrex interface results in the formation of SiO2, which forms the actual bond between both substrates. At positions of an intermediate antibonding layer the oxygen ions form oxygen gas. The Pyrex or silicon substrate may deform locally due to the buildup of oxygen gas pressure. This can be prevented by adding a gas outlet to the design. ©2001 The Electrochemical Society. All rights reserved.

KW - METIS-200128

KW - IR-42005

U2 - 10.1149/1.1339873

DO - 10.1149/1.1339873

M3 - Article

VL - 148

SP - G68-G72

JO - Journal of the Electrochemical Society

JF - Journal of the Electrochemical Society

SN - 0013-4651

IS - 2

ER -