Use of standard U-bottom and V-bottom well plates to generate neuroepithelial embryoid bodies

David Choy Buentello, Lena Sophie Koch, Grissel Trujillo-De Santiago, Mario Moisés Alvarez*, Kerensa Broersen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)
54 Downloads (Pure)


The use of organoids has become increasingly popular recently due to their self-organizing abilities, which facilitate developmental and disease modeling. Various methods have been described to create embryoid bodies (EBs) generated from embryonic or pluripotent stem cells but with varying levels of differentiation success and producing organoids of variable size. Commercial ultra-low attachment (ULA) V-bottom well plates are frequently used to generate EBs. These plates are relatively expensive and not as widely available as standard concave well plates. Here, we describe a cost-effective and low labor-intensive method that creates homogeneous EBs at high yield in standard V- and U-bottom well plates by applying an anti-adherence solution to reduce surface attachment, followed by centrifugation to enhance cellular aggregation. We also explore the effect of different seeding densities, in the range of 1 to 11 ×103 cells per well, for the fabrication of neuroepithelial EBs. Our results show that the use of V-bottom well plates briefly treated with anti-adherent solution (for 5 min at room temperature) consistently yields functional neural EBs in the range of seeding densities from 5 to 11×103 cells per well. A brief post-seeding centrifugation step further enhances EB establishment. EBs fabricated using centrifugation exhibited lower variability in their final size than their non-centrifuged counterparts, and centrifugation also improved EB yield. The span of conditions for reliable EB production is narrower in U-bottom wells than in V-bottom wells (i.e., seeding densities between 7×103 and 11×103 and using a centrifugation step). We show that EBs generated by the protocols introduced here successfully developed into neural organoids and expressed the relevant markers associated with their lineages. We anticipate that the cost-effective and easily implemented protocols presented here will greatly facilitate the generation of EBs, thereby further democratizing the worldwide ability to conduct organoid-based research.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere0262062
JournalPLoS ONE
Issue number5 May
Publication statusPublished - 10 May 2022


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