The additional information provided by automated on-line 3-dimensional (3- D) reconstruction of intracoronary ultrasound (ICUS) was assessed in 42 patients (62 stents) who underwent stent deployment after achieving an optimal quantitative angiographic result. In 10 of 42 patients, 3-D ICUS was also performed before stenting. ICUS images of stents and adjacent reference segments were acquired by using a motorized pullback at a constant speed (1 mm/s) and immediately processed in the catheterization laboratory. Optimal stent expansion was detected by 3-D ICUS in case of complete apposition of stent struts to the vessel wall. Furthermore, an attempt was made to maximize the intrastent lumen area to match lumen area of the reference segment and to cover with stents all the segments with residual significant lesions(plaque burden >50%). Three-dimensional automated reconstruction of ICUS was successful in 8 of 10 patients (80%) before, and in 36 of 42 patients (86%) after stent deployment. In all 8 patients who underwent successful 3-D ICUS assessment before stent implantation, the selection of stent length was facilitated by accurately measuring the lesion length. After stenting, 3-D ICUS modified the management strategy in 21 of 36 patients (58%), triggering additional high-pressure dilatations in 13 patients (36%) and additional stent deployment in 8 (22%). In conclusion, on-line 3-D ICUS facilitates stent selection and strongly modifies the revascularization strategy by accurately detecting stent underexpansion and presence of uncovered lesions.