Using body sensors for evaluating the impact of smart cycling technologies on cycling experiences: a systematic literature review and conceptual framework

Mario Boot*, Mehmet Baran Ulak, Karst T. Geurs, Paul J.M. Havinga

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleAcademicpeer-review

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Abstract

Digital technologies in, on, and around bicycles and cyclists are gaining ground. Collectively called Smart Cycling Technologies (SCTs), it is important to evaluate their impact on subjective cycling experiences. Future evaluations can inform the design of SCTs, which in turn can help to realize the abundant benefits of cycling. Wearable body sensors and advanced driver assistance systems are increasingly studied in other domains, however evaluation methods integrating such sensors and systems in the field of cycling research were under-reviewed and under-conceptualized. This paper therefore presents a systematic literature review and conceptual framework to support the use of body sensors in evaluations of the impact of SCTs on perceptions, emotions, feelings, affect, and more, during outdoor bicycle rides. The literature review (n = 40) showed that there is scarce research on this specific use of body sensors. Moreover, existing research designs are typically not tailored to determine impact of SCTs on cycling experience at large scale. Most studies had small sample sizes and explored limited sensors in chest belts and wristbands for evaluating stress response. The evaluation framework helps to overcome these limitations, by synthesizing crucial factors and methods for future evaluations in four categories: (1) experiences with SCTs, (2) experience measurements, (3) causal analysis, (4) confounding variables. The framework also identifies which types of sensors fit well to which types of experiences and SCTs. The seven directions for future research include, for example, experiences of psychological flow, sensors in e-textiles, and cycling with biofeedback. Future interactions between cyclists and SCTs will likely resemble a collaboration between humans and artificial intelligence. Altogether, this paper helps to understand if future support systems for cyclists truly make cycling safer and more attractive.
Original languageEnglish
Article number13
Number of pages23
JournalEuropean transport research review
Volume16
Early online date14 Feb 2024
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print/First online - 14 Feb 2024

Keywords

  • Smart cycling technology
  • Body sensor
  • Cycling experience
  • Impact
  • Evaluation

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