Validation of distal limb mounted inertial measurement unit sensors for stride detection in Warmblood horses at walk and trot

F.M. Braganca, S. Bosch, J.P. Voskamp, Mihai Marin Perianu, B.J. van der Zwaag, J.C. Vernooij, P.R. van Weeren, W. Back

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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Abstract

Background: Inertial measurement unit (IMU) sensor-based techniques are becoming more popular in horses as a tool for objective locomotor assessment. Objectives: To describe, evaluate and validate a method of stride detection and quantification at walk and trot using distal limb mounted IMU sensors. Study design: Prospective validation study comparing IMU sensors and motion capture with force plate data. Methods: A total of seven Warmblood horses equipped with metacarpal/metatarsal IMU sensors and reflective markers for motion capture were hand walked and trotted over a force plate. Using four custom built algorithms hoof-on/hoof-off timing over the force plate were calculated for each trial from the IMU data. Accuracy of the computed parameters was calculated as the mean difference in milliseconds between the IMU or motion capture generated data and the data from the force plate, precision as the s.d. of these differences and percentage of error with accuracy of the calculated parameter as a percentage of the force plate stance duration. Results: Accuracy, precision and percentage of error of the best performing IMU algorithm for stance duration at walk were 28.5, 31.6 ms and 3.7% for the forelimbs and −5.5, 20.1 ms and −0.8% for the hindlimbs, respectively. At trot the best performing algorithm achieved accuracy, precision and percentage of error of −27.6/8.8 ms/−8.4% for the forelimbs and 6.3/33.5 ms/9.1% for the hindlimbs. Main limitations: The described algorithms have not been assessed on different surfaces. Conclusions: Inertial measurement unit technology can be used to determine temporal kinematic stride variables at walk and trot justifying its use in gait and performance analysis. However, precision of the method may not be sufficient to detect all possible lameness-related changes. These data seem promising enough to warrant further research to evaluate whether this approach will be useful for appraising the majority of clinically relevant gait changes encountered in practice.
Original languageUndefined
Number of pages7
JournalEquine veterinary journal
Volumeonline pre-publication
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 13 Dec 2016

Keywords

  • EWI-27758
  • horse
  • Gait analysis
  • IR-104408
  • stride events
  • inertial measurement unit
  • Kinematics

Cite this

Braganca, F.M. ; Bosch, S. ; Voskamp, J.P. ; Marin Perianu, Mihai ; van der Zwaag, B.J. ; Vernooij, J.C. ; van Weeren, P.R. ; Back, W. / Validation of distal limb mounted inertial measurement unit sensors for stride detection in Warmblood horses at walk and trot. In: Equine veterinary journal. 2016 ; Vol. online pre-publication.
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title = "Validation of distal limb mounted inertial measurement unit sensors for stride detection in Warmblood horses at walk and trot",
abstract = "Background: Inertial measurement unit (IMU) sensor-based techniques are becoming more popular in horses as a tool for objective locomotor assessment. Objectives: To describe, evaluate and validate a method of stride detection and quantification at walk and trot using distal limb mounted IMU sensors. Study design: Prospective validation study comparing IMU sensors and motion capture with force plate data. Methods: A total of seven Warmblood horses equipped with metacarpal/metatarsal IMU sensors and reflective markers for motion capture were hand walked and trotted over a force plate. Using four custom built algorithms hoof-on/hoof-off timing over the force plate were calculated for each trial from the IMU data. Accuracy of the computed parameters was calculated as the mean difference in milliseconds between the IMU or motion capture generated data and the data from the force plate, precision as the s.d. of these differences and percentage of error with accuracy of the calculated parameter as a percentage of the force plate stance duration. Results: Accuracy, precision and percentage of error of the best performing IMU algorithm for stance duration at walk were 28.5, 31.6 ms and 3.7{\%} for the forelimbs and −5.5, 20.1 ms and −0.8{\%} for the hindlimbs, respectively. At trot the best performing algorithm achieved accuracy, precision and percentage of error of −27.6/8.8 ms/−8.4{\%} for the forelimbs and 6.3/33.5 ms/9.1{\%} for the hindlimbs. Main limitations: The described algorithms have not been assessed on different surfaces. Conclusions: Inertial measurement unit technology can be used to determine temporal kinematic stride variables at walk and trot justifying its use in gait and performance analysis. However, precision of the method may not be sufficient to detect all possible lameness-related changes. These data seem promising enough to warrant further research to evaluate whether this approach will be useful for appraising the majority of clinically relevant gait changes encountered in practice.",
keywords = "EWI-27758, horse, Gait analysis, IR-104408, stride events, inertial measurement unit, Kinematics",
author = "F.M. Braganca and S. Bosch and J.P. Voskamp and {Marin Perianu}, Mihai and {van der Zwaag}, B.J. and J.C. Vernooij and {van Weeren}, P.R. and W. Back",
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doi = "10.1111/evj.12651",
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Validation of distal limb mounted inertial measurement unit sensors for stride detection in Warmblood horses at walk and trot. / Braganca, F.M.; Bosch, S.; Voskamp, J.P.; Marin Perianu, Mihai; van der Zwaag, B.J.; Vernooij, J.C.; van Weeren, P.R.; Back, W.

In: Equine veterinary journal, Vol. online pre-publication, 13.12.2016.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Validation of distal limb mounted inertial measurement unit sensors for stride detection in Warmblood horses at walk and trot

AU - Braganca, F.M.

AU - Bosch, S.

AU - Voskamp, J.P.

AU - Marin Perianu, Mihai

AU - van der Zwaag, B.J.

AU - Vernooij, J.C.

AU - van Weeren, P.R.

AU - Back, W.

N1 - Open access

PY - 2016/12/13

Y1 - 2016/12/13

N2 - Background: Inertial measurement unit (IMU) sensor-based techniques are becoming more popular in horses as a tool for objective locomotor assessment. Objectives: To describe, evaluate and validate a method of stride detection and quantification at walk and trot using distal limb mounted IMU sensors. Study design: Prospective validation study comparing IMU sensors and motion capture with force plate data. Methods: A total of seven Warmblood horses equipped with metacarpal/metatarsal IMU sensors and reflective markers for motion capture were hand walked and trotted over a force plate. Using four custom built algorithms hoof-on/hoof-off timing over the force plate were calculated for each trial from the IMU data. Accuracy of the computed parameters was calculated as the mean difference in milliseconds between the IMU or motion capture generated data and the data from the force plate, precision as the s.d. of these differences and percentage of error with accuracy of the calculated parameter as a percentage of the force plate stance duration. Results: Accuracy, precision and percentage of error of the best performing IMU algorithm for stance duration at walk were 28.5, 31.6 ms and 3.7% for the forelimbs and −5.5, 20.1 ms and −0.8% for the hindlimbs, respectively. At trot the best performing algorithm achieved accuracy, precision and percentage of error of −27.6/8.8 ms/−8.4% for the forelimbs and 6.3/33.5 ms/9.1% for the hindlimbs. Main limitations: The described algorithms have not been assessed on different surfaces. Conclusions: Inertial measurement unit technology can be used to determine temporal kinematic stride variables at walk and trot justifying its use in gait and performance analysis. However, precision of the method may not be sufficient to detect all possible lameness-related changes. These data seem promising enough to warrant further research to evaluate whether this approach will be useful for appraising the majority of clinically relevant gait changes encountered in practice.

AB - Background: Inertial measurement unit (IMU) sensor-based techniques are becoming more popular in horses as a tool for objective locomotor assessment. Objectives: To describe, evaluate and validate a method of stride detection and quantification at walk and trot using distal limb mounted IMU sensors. Study design: Prospective validation study comparing IMU sensors and motion capture with force plate data. Methods: A total of seven Warmblood horses equipped with metacarpal/metatarsal IMU sensors and reflective markers for motion capture were hand walked and trotted over a force plate. Using four custom built algorithms hoof-on/hoof-off timing over the force plate were calculated for each trial from the IMU data. Accuracy of the computed parameters was calculated as the mean difference in milliseconds between the IMU or motion capture generated data and the data from the force plate, precision as the s.d. of these differences and percentage of error with accuracy of the calculated parameter as a percentage of the force plate stance duration. Results: Accuracy, precision and percentage of error of the best performing IMU algorithm for stance duration at walk were 28.5, 31.6 ms and 3.7% for the forelimbs and −5.5, 20.1 ms and −0.8% for the hindlimbs, respectively. At trot the best performing algorithm achieved accuracy, precision and percentage of error of −27.6/8.8 ms/−8.4% for the forelimbs and 6.3/33.5 ms/9.1% for the hindlimbs. Main limitations: The described algorithms have not been assessed on different surfaces. Conclusions: Inertial measurement unit technology can be used to determine temporal kinematic stride variables at walk and trot justifying its use in gait and performance analysis. However, precision of the method may not be sufficient to detect all possible lameness-related changes. These data seem promising enough to warrant further research to evaluate whether this approach will be useful for appraising the majority of clinically relevant gait changes encountered in practice.

KW - EWI-27758

KW - horse

KW - Gait analysis

KW - IR-104408

KW - stride events

KW - inertial measurement unit

KW - Kinematics

U2 - 10.1111/evj.12651

DO - 10.1111/evj.12651

M3 - Article

VL - online pre-publication

JO - Equine veterinary journal

JF - Equine veterinary journal

SN - 2042-3306

ER -