Validation of distal limb mounted inertial measurement unit sensors for stride detection in Warmblood horses at walk and trot

F.M. Braganca, S. Bosch, J.P. Voskamp, Mihai Marin Perianu, B.J. van der Zwaag, J.C. Vernooij, P.R. van Weeren, W. Back

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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    Abstract

    Background: Inertial measurement unit (IMU) sensor-based techniques are becoming more popular in horses as a tool for objective locomotor assessment. Objectives: To describe, evaluate and validate a method of stride detection and quantification at walk and trot using distal limb mounted IMU sensors. Study design: Prospective validation study comparing IMU sensors and motion capture with force plate data. Methods: A total of seven Warmblood horses equipped with metacarpal/metatarsal IMU sensors and reflective markers for motion capture were hand walked and trotted over a force plate. Using four custom built algorithms hoof-on/hoof-off timing over the force plate were calculated for each trial from the IMU data. Accuracy of the computed parameters was calculated as the mean difference in milliseconds between the IMU or motion capture generated data and the data from the force plate, precision as the s.d. of these differences and percentage of error with accuracy of the calculated parameter as a percentage of the force plate stance duration. Results: Accuracy, precision and percentage of error of the best performing IMU algorithm for stance duration at walk were 28.5, 31.6 ms and 3.7% for the forelimbs and −5.5, 20.1 ms and −0.8% for the hindlimbs, respectively. At trot the best performing algorithm achieved accuracy, precision and percentage of error of −27.6/8.8 ms/−8.4% for the forelimbs and 6.3/33.5 ms/9.1% for the hindlimbs. Main limitations: The described algorithms have not been assessed on different surfaces. Conclusions: Inertial measurement unit technology can be used to determine temporal kinematic stride variables at walk and trot justifying its use in gait and performance analysis. However, precision of the method may not be sufficient to detect all possible lameness-related changes. These data seem promising enough to warrant further research to evaluate whether this approach will be useful for appraising the majority of clinically relevant gait changes encountered in practice.
    Original languageUndefined
    Number of pages7
    JournalEquine veterinary journal
    Volumeonline pre-publication
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 13 Dec 2016

    Keywords

    • EWI-27758
    • horse
    • Gait analysis
    • IR-104408
    • stride events
    • inertial measurement unit
    • Kinematics

    Cite this

    Braganca, F.M. ; Bosch, S. ; Voskamp, J.P. ; Marin Perianu, Mihai ; van der Zwaag, B.J. ; Vernooij, J.C. ; van Weeren, P.R. ; Back, W. / Validation of distal limb mounted inertial measurement unit sensors for stride detection in Warmblood horses at walk and trot. In: Equine veterinary journal. 2016 ; Vol. online pre-publication.
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    title = "Validation of distal limb mounted inertial measurement unit sensors for stride detection in Warmblood horses at walk and trot",
    abstract = "Background: Inertial measurement unit (IMU) sensor-based techniques are becoming more popular in horses as a tool for objective locomotor assessment. Objectives: To describe, evaluate and validate a method of stride detection and quantification at walk and trot using distal limb mounted IMU sensors. Study design: Prospective validation study comparing IMU sensors and motion capture with force plate data. Methods: A total of seven Warmblood horses equipped with metacarpal/metatarsal IMU sensors and reflective markers for motion capture were hand walked and trotted over a force plate. Using four custom built algorithms hoof-on/hoof-off timing over the force plate were calculated for each trial from the IMU data. Accuracy of the computed parameters was calculated as the mean difference in milliseconds between the IMU or motion capture generated data and the data from the force plate, precision as the s.d. of these differences and percentage of error with accuracy of the calculated parameter as a percentage of the force plate stance duration. Results: Accuracy, precision and percentage of error of the best performing IMU algorithm for stance duration at walk were 28.5, 31.6 ms and 3.7{\%} for the forelimbs and −5.5, 20.1 ms and −0.8{\%} for the hindlimbs, respectively. At trot the best performing algorithm achieved accuracy, precision and percentage of error of −27.6/8.8 ms/−8.4{\%} for the forelimbs and 6.3/33.5 ms/9.1{\%} for the hindlimbs. Main limitations: The described algorithms have not been assessed on different surfaces. Conclusions: Inertial measurement unit technology can be used to determine temporal kinematic stride variables at walk and trot justifying its use in gait and performance analysis. However, precision of the method may not be sufficient to detect all possible lameness-related changes. These data seem promising enough to warrant further research to evaluate whether this approach will be useful for appraising the majority of clinically relevant gait changes encountered in practice.",
    keywords = "EWI-27758, horse, Gait analysis, IR-104408, stride events, inertial measurement unit, Kinematics",
    author = "F.M. Braganca and S. Bosch and J.P. Voskamp and {Marin Perianu}, Mihai and {van der Zwaag}, B.J. and J.C. Vernooij and {van Weeren}, P.R. and W. Back",
    note = "Open access",
    year = "2016",
    month = "12",
    day = "13",
    doi = "10.1111/evj.12651",
    language = "Undefined",
    volume = "online pre-publication",
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    Validation of distal limb mounted inertial measurement unit sensors for stride detection in Warmblood horses at walk and trot. / Braganca, F.M.; Bosch, S.; Voskamp, J.P.; Marin Perianu, Mihai; van der Zwaag, B.J.; Vernooij, J.C.; van Weeren, P.R.; Back, W.

    In: Equine veterinary journal, Vol. online pre-publication, 13.12.2016.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Validation of distal limb mounted inertial measurement unit sensors for stride detection in Warmblood horses at walk and trot

    AU - Braganca, F.M.

    AU - Bosch, S.

    AU - Voskamp, J.P.

    AU - Marin Perianu, Mihai

    AU - van der Zwaag, B.J.

    AU - Vernooij, J.C.

    AU - van Weeren, P.R.

    AU - Back, W.

    N1 - Open access

    PY - 2016/12/13

    Y1 - 2016/12/13

    N2 - Background: Inertial measurement unit (IMU) sensor-based techniques are becoming more popular in horses as a tool for objective locomotor assessment. Objectives: To describe, evaluate and validate a method of stride detection and quantification at walk and trot using distal limb mounted IMU sensors. Study design: Prospective validation study comparing IMU sensors and motion capture with force plate data. Methods: A total of seven Warmblood horses equipped with metacarpal/metatarsal IMU sensors and reflective markers for motion capture were hand walked and trotted over a force plate. Using four custom built algorithms hoof-on/hoof-off timing over the force plate were calculated for each trial from the IMU data. Accuracy of the computed parameters was calculated as the mean difference in milliseconds between the IMU or motion capture generated data and the data from the force plate, precision as the s.d. of these differences and percentage of error with accuracy of the calculated parameter as a percentage of the force plate stance duration. Results: Accuracy, precision and percentage of error of the best performing IMU algorithm for stance duration at walk were 28.5, 31.6 ms and 3.7% for the forelimbs and −5.5, 20.1 ms and −0.8% for the hindlimbs, respectively. At trot the best performing algorithm achieved accuracy, precision and percentage of error of −27.6/8.8 ms/−8.4% for the forelimbs and 6.3/33.5 ms/9.1% for the hindlimbs. Main limitations: The described algorithms have not been assessed on different surfaces. Conclusions: Inertial measurement unit technology can be used to determine temporal kinematic stride variables at walk and trot justifying its use in gait and performance analysis. However, precision of the method may not be sufficient to detect all possible lameness-related changes. These data seem promising enough to warrant further research to evaluate whether this approach will be useful for appraising the majority of clinically relevant gait changes encountered in practice.

    AB - Background: Inertial measurement unit (IMU) sensor-based techniques are becoming more popular in horses as a tool for objective locomotor assessment. Objectives: To describe, evaluate and validate a method of stride detection and quantification at walk and trot using distal limb mounted IMU sensors. Study design: Prospective validation study comparing IMU sensors and motion capture with force plate data. Methods: A total of seven Warmblood horses equipped with metacarpal/metatarsal IMU sensors and reflective markers for motion capture were hand walked and trotted over a force plate. Using four custom built algorithms hoof-on/hoof-off timing over the force plate were calculated for each trial from the IMU data. Accuracy of the computed parameters was calculated as the mean difference in milliseconds between the IMU or motion capture generated data and the data from the force plate, precision as the s.d. of these differences and percentage of error with accuracy of the calculated parameter as a percentage of the force plate stance duration. Results: Accuracy, precision and percentage of error of the best performing IMU algorithm for stance duration at walk were 28.5, 31.6 ms and 3.7% for the forelimbs and −5.5, 20.1 ms and −0.8% for the hindlimbs, respectively. At trot the best performing algorithm achieved accuracy, precision and percentage of error of −27.6/8.8 ms/−8.4% for the forelimbs and 6.3/33.5 ms/9.1% for the hindlimbs. Main limitations: The described algorithms have not been assessed on different surfaces. Conclusions: Inertial measurement unit technology can be used to determine temporal kinematic stride variables at walk and trot justifying its use in gait and performance analysis. However, precision of the method may not be sufficient to detect all possible lameness-related changes. These data seem promising enough to warrant further research to evaluate whether this approach will be useful for appraising the majority of clinically relevant gait changes encountered in practice.

    KW - EWI-27758

    KW - horse

    KW - Gait analysis

    KW - IR-104408

    KW - stride events

    KW - inertial measurement unit

    KW - Kinematics

    U2 - 10.1111/evj.12651

    DO - 10.1111/evj.12651

    M3 - Article

    VL - online pre-publication

    JO - Equine veterinary journal

    JF - Equine veterinary journal

    SN - 2042-3306

    ER -