Validation of low-cost smartphone-based thermal camera for diabetic foot assessment

R. F.M. van Doremalen* (Corresponding Author), J. J. van Netten, J. G. van Baal, M. M.R. Vollenbroek-Hutten, F. van der Heijden

*Corresponding author for this work

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

    7 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Aims: Infrared thermal imaging (IR) is not yet routinely implemented for early detection of diabetic foot ulcers (DFU), despite proven clinical effectiveness. Low-cost, smartphone-based IR-cameras are now available and may lower the threshold for implementation, but the quality of these cameras is unknown. We aim to validate a smartphone-based IR-camera against a high-end IR-camera for diabetic foot assessment. Methods: We acquired plantar IR images of feet of 32 participants with a current or recently healed DFU with the smartphone-based FLIR-One and the high-end FLIR-SC305. Contralateral temperature differences of the entire plantar foot and nine pre-specified regions were compared for validation. Intra-class correlations coefficient (ICC(3,1)) and Bland-Altman plots were used to test agreement. Clinical validity was assessed by calculating statistical measures of diagnostic performance. Results: Almost perfect agreement was found for temperature measurements in both the entire plantar foot and the combined pre-specified regions, respectively, with ICC values of 0.987 and 0.981, Bland-Altman plots’ mean Δ = −0.14 and Δ = −0.06. Diagnostic accuracy showed 94% and 93% sensitivity, and 86% and 91% specificity. Conclusions: The smartphone-based IR-camera shows excellent validity for diabetic foot assessment.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)132-139
    Number of pages8
    JournalDiabetes Research and Clinical Practice
    Volume149
    Early online date6 Feb 2019
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2019

    Fingerprint

    Diabetic Foot
    Hot Temperature
    Foot
    Costs and Cost Analysis
    Temperature
    Smartphone

    Keywords

    • Diabetes mellitus
    • Diabetic foot
    • Foot ulcer
    • Smartphone
    • Temperature
    • Thermal infrared

    Cite this

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    title = "Validation of low-cost smartphone-based thermal camera for diabetic foot assessment",
    abstract = "Aims: Infrared thermal imaging (IR) is not yet routinely implemented for early detection of diabetic foot ulcers (DFU), despite proven clinical effectiveness. Low-cost, smartphone-based IR-cameras are now available and may lower the threshold for implementation, but the quality of these cameras is unknown. We aim to validate a smartphone-based IR-camera against a high-end IR-camera for diabetic foot assessment. Methods: We acquired plantar IR images of feet of 32 participants with a current or recently healed DFU with the smartphone-based FLIR-One and the high-end FLIR-SC305. Contralateral temperature differences of the entire plantar foot and nine pre-specified regions were compared for validation. Intra-class correlations coefficient (ICC(3,1)) and Bland-Altman plots were used to test agreement. Clinical validity was assessed by calculating statistical measures of diagnostic performance. Results: Almost perfect agreement was found for temperature measurements in both the entire plantar foot and the combined pre-specified regions, respectively, with ICC values of 0.987 and 0.981, Bland-Altman plots’ mean Δ = −0.14 and Δ = −0.06. Diagnostic accuracy showed 94{\%} and 93{\%} sensitivity, and 86{\%} and 91{\%} specificity. Conclusions: The smartphone-based IR-camera shows excellent validity for diabetic foot assessment.",
    keywords = "Diabetes mellitus, Diabetic foot, Foot ulcer, Smartphone, Temperature, Thermal infrared",
    author = "{van Doremalen}, {R. F.M.} and {van Netten}, {J. J.} and {van Baal}, {J. G.} and Vollenbroek-Hutten, {M. M.R.} and {van der Heijden}, F.",
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    Validation of low-cost smartphone-based thermal camera for diabetic foot assessment. / van Doremalen, R. F.M. (Corresponding Author); van Netten, J. J.; van Baal, J. G.; Vollenbroek-Hutten, M. M.R.; van der Heijden, F.

    In: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, Vol. 149, 01.03.2019, p. 132-139.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Validation of low-cost smartphone-based thermal camera for diabetic foot assessment

    AU - van Doremalen, R. F.M.

    AU - van Netten, J. J.

    AU - van Baal, J. G.

    AU - Vollenbroek-Hutten, M. M.R.

    AU - van der Heijden, F.

    PY - 2019/3/1

    Y1 - 2019/3/1

    N2 - Aims: Infrared thermal imaging (IR) is not yet routinely implemented for early detection of diabetic foot ulcers (DFU), despite proven clinical effectiveness. Low-cost, smartphone-based IR-cameras are now available and may lower the threshold for implementation, but the quality of these cameras is unknown. We aim to validate a smartphone-based IR-camera against a high-end IR-camera for diabetic foot assessment. Methods: We acquired plantar IR images of feet of 32 participants with a current or recently healed DFU with the smartphone-based FLIR-One and the high-end FLIR-SC305. Contralateral temperature differences of the entire plantar foot and nine pre-specified regions were compared for validation. Intra-class correlations coefficient (ICC(3,1)) and Bland-Altman plots were used to test agreement. Clinical validity was assessed by calculating statistical measures of diagnostic performance. Results: Almost perfect agreement was found for temperature measurements in both the entire plantar foot and the combined pre-specified regions, respectively, with ICC values of 0.987 and 0.981, Bland-Altman plots’ mean Δ = −0.14 and Δ = −0.06. Diagnostic accuracy showed 94% and 93% sensitivity, and 86% and 91% specificity. Conclusions: The smartphone-based IR-camera shows excellent validity for diabetic foot assessment.

    AB - Aims: Infrared thermal imaging (IR) is not yet routinely implemented for early detection of diabetic foot ulcers (DFU), despite proven clinical effectiveness. Low-cost, smartphone-based IR-cameras are now available and may lower the threshold for implementation, but the quality of these cameras is unknown. We aim to validate a smartphone-based IR-camera against a high-end IR-camera for diabetic foot assessment. Methods: We acquired plantar IR images of feet of 32 participants with a current or recently healed DFU with the smartphone-based FLIR-One and the high-end FLIR-SC305. Contralateral temperature differences of the entire plantar foot and nine pre-specified regions were compared for validation. Intra-class correlations coefficient (ICC(3,1)) and Bland-Altman plots were used to test agreement. Clinical validity was assessed by calculating statistical measures of diagnostic performance. Results: Almost perfect agreement was found for temperature measurements in both the entire plantar foot and the combined pre-specified regions, respectively, with ICC values of 0.987 and 0.981, Bland-Altman plots’ mean Δ = −0.14 and Δ = −0.06. Diagnostic accuracy showed 94% and 93% sensitivity, and 86% and 91% specificity. Conclusions: The smartphone-based IR-camera shows excellent validity for diabetic foot assessment.

    KW - Diabetes mellitus

    KW - Diabetic foot

    KW - Foot ulcer

    KW - Smartphone

    KW - Temperature

    KW - Thermal infrared

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