Validation of low-cost smartphone-based thermal camera for diabetic foot assessment

R. F.M. van Doremalen (Corresponding Author), J. J. van Netten, J. G. van Baal, M. M.R. Vollenbroek-Hutten, F. van der Heijden

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Aims: Infrared thermal imaging (IR) is not yet routinely implemented for early detection of diabetic foot ulcers (DFU), despite proven clinical effectiveness. Low-cost, smartphone-based IR-cameras are now available and may lower the threshold for implementation, but the quality of these cameras is unknown. We aim to validate a smartphone-based IR-camera against a high-end IR-camera for diabetic foot assessment. Methods: We acquired plantar IR images of feet of 32 participants with a current or recently healed DFU with the smartphone-based FLIR-One and the high-end FLIR-SC305. Contralateral temperature differences of the entire plantar foot and nine pre-specified regions were compared for validation. Intra-class correlations coefficient (ICC(3,1)) and Bland-Altman plots were used to test agreement. Clinical validity was assessed by calculating statistical measures of diagnostic performance. Results: Almost perfect agreement was found for temperature measurements in both the entire plantar foot and the combined pre-specified regions, respectively, with ICC values of 0.987 and 0.981, Bland-Altman plots’ mean Δ = −0.14 and Δ = −0.06. Diagnostic accuracy showed 94% and 93% sensitivity, and 86% and 91% specificity. Conclusions: The smartphone-based IR-camera shows excellent validity for diabetic foot assessment.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)132-139
Number of pages8
JournalDiabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Volume149
Early online date6 Feb 2019
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2019

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Diabetic Foot
Hot Temperature
Foot
Costs and Cost Analysis
Temperature
Smartphone

Keywords

  • Diabetes mellitus
  • Diabetic foot
  • Foot ulcer
  • Smartphone
  • Temperature
  • Thermal infrared

Cite this

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title = "Validation of low-cost smartphone-based thermal camera for diabetic foot assessment",
abstract = "Aims: Infrared thermal imaging (IR) is not yet routinely implemented for early detection of diabetic foot ulcers (DFU), despite proven clinical effectiveness. Low-cost, smartphone-based IR-cameras are now available and may lower the threshold for implementation, but the quality of these cameras is unknown. We aim to validate a smartphone-based IR-camera against a high-end IR-camera for diabetic foot assessment. Methods: We acquired plantar IR images of feet of 32 participants with a current or recently healed DFU with the smartphone-based FLIR-One and the high-end FLIR-SC305. Contralateral temperature differences of the entire plantar foot and nine pre-specified regions were compared for validation. Intra-class correlations coefficient (ICC(3,1)) and Bland-Altman plots were used to test agreement. Clinical validity was assessed by calculating statistical measures of diagnostic performance. Results: Almost perfect agreement was found for temperature measurements in both the entire plantar foot and the combined pre-specified regions, respectively, with ICC values of 0.987 and 0.981, Bland-Altman plots’ mean Δ = −0.14 and Δ = −0.06. Diagnostic accuracy showed 94{\%} and 93{\%} sensitivity, and 86{\%} and 91{\%} specificity. Conclusions: The smartphone-based IR-camera shows excellent validity for diabetic foot assessment.",
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author = "{van Doremalen}, {R. F.M.} and {van Netten}, {J. J.} and {van Baal}, {J. G.} and Vollenbroek-Hutten, {M. M.R.} and {van der Heijden}, F.",
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Validation of low-cost smartphone-based thermal camera for diabetic foot assessment. / van Doremalen, R. F.M. (Corresponding Author); van Netten, J. J.; van Baal, J. G.; Vollenbroek-Hutten, M. M.R.; van der Heijden, F.

In: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, Vol. 149, 01.03.2019, p. 132-139.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Validation of low-cost smartphone-based thermal camera for diabetic foot assessment

AU - van Doremalen, R. F.M.

AU - van Netten, J. J.

AU - van Baal, J. G.

AU - Vollenbroek-Hutten, M. M.R.

AU - van der Heijden, F.

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N2 - Aims: Infrared thermal imaging (IR) is not yet routinely implemented for early detection of diabetic foot ulcers (DFU), despite proven clinical effectiveness. Low-cost, smartphone-based IR-cameras are now available and may lower the threshold for implementation, but the quality of these cameras is unknown. We aim to validate a smartphone-based IR-camera against a high-end IR-camera for diabetic foot assessment. Methods: We acquired plantar IR images of feet of 32 participants with a current or recently healed DFU with the smartphone-based FLIR-One and the high-end FLIR-SC305. Contralateral temperature differences of the entire plantar foot and nine pre-specified regions were compared for validation. Intra-class correlations coefficient (ICC(3,1)) and Bland-Altman plots were used to test agreement. Clinical validity was assessed by calculating statistical measures of diagnostic performance. Results: Almost perfect agreement was found for temperature measurements in both the entire plantar foot and the combined pre-specified regions, respectively, with ICC values of 0.987 and 0.981, Bland-Altman plots’ mean Δ = −0.14 and Δ = −0.06. Diagnostic accuracy showed 94% and 93% sensitivity, and 86% and 91% specificity. Conclusions: The smartphone-based IR-camera shows excellent validity for diabetic foot assessment.

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