Variable impedance actuators: a review

B. Vanderborght, A. Albu-Schäffer, A. Bicchi, E. Burdet, D.G. Caldwell, Raffaella Carloni, M. Catalano, O. Eiberger, W. Friedl, G. Ganesh, M. Garabini, M. Grebenstein, G. Grioli, S. Haddadin, H. Hoppner, A. Jafari, M. Laffranchi, D. Lefeber, F. Petit, S. Stramigioli & 5 others N. Tsagarakis, M. van Damme, R. ten Ham, L.C. Visser, S. Wolf

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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Abstract

Variable Impedance Actuators (VIA) have received increasing attention in recent years as many novel applications involving interactions with an un- known and dynamic environment including humans require actuators with dynamics that are not well-achieved by classical stiff actuators. This paper presents an overview of the different VIAs developed and proposes a clas- sification based on the principles through which the variable stiffness and damping are achieved. The main classes are active impedance by control, inherent compliance and damping actuators, inertial actuators, and combi- nations of them, which are then further divided into subclasses. This classi- fication allows for designers of new devices to orientate and take inspiration and users of VIA’s to be guided in the design and implementation process for their targeted application.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1601-1614
Number of pages39
JournalRobotics and autonomous systems
Volume61
Issue number12
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2013

Fingerprint

Impedance
Actuator
Actuators
Damping
Compliance control
Dynamic Environment
Compliance
Stiffness
Review
Unknown
Interaction

Keywords

  • EWI-23578
  • Variable impedance actuators
  • IR-86985
  • METIS-297776
  • Soft robotics

Cite this

Vanderborght, B., Albu-Schäffer, A., Bicchi, A., Burdet, E., Caldwell, D. G., Carloni, R., ... Wolf, S. (2013). Variable impedance actuators: a review. Robotics and autonomous systems, 61(12), 1601-1614. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.robot.2013.06.009
Vanderborght, B. ; Albu-Schäffer, A. ; Bicchi, A. ; Burdet, E. ; Caldwell, D.G. ; Carloni, Raffaella ; Catalano, M. ; Eiberger, O. ; Friedl, W. ; Ganesh, G. ; Garabini, M. ; Grebenstein, M. ; Grioli, G. ; Haddadin, S. ; Hoppner, H. ; Jafari, A. ; Laffranchi, M. ; Lefeber, D. ; Petit, F. ; Stramigioli, S. ; Tsagarakis, N. ; van Damme, M. ; ten Ham, R. ; Visser, L.C. ; Wolf, S. / Variable impedance actuators: a review. In: Robotics and autonomous systems. 2013 ; Vol. 61, No. 12. pp. 1601-1614.
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abstract = "Variable Impedance Actuators (VIA) have received increasing attention in recent years as many novel applications involving interactions with an un- known and dynamic environment including humans require actuators with dynamics that are not well-achieved by classical stiff actuators. This paper presents an overview of the different VIAs developed and proposes a clas- sification based on the principles through which the variable stiffness and damping are achieved. The main classes are active impedance by control, inherent compliance and damping actuators, inertial actuators, and combi- nations of them, which are then further divided into subclasses. This classi- fication allows for designers of new devices to orientate and take inspiration and users of VIA’s to be guided in the design and implementation process for their targeted application.",
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Vanderborght, B, Albu-Schäffer, A, Bicchi, A, Burdet, E, Caldwell, DG, Carloni, R, Catalano, M, Eiberger, O, Friedl, W, Ganesh, G, Garabini, M, Grebenstein, M, Grioli, G, Haddadin, S, Hoppner, H, Jafari, A, Laffranchi, M, Lefeber, D, Petit, F, Stramigioli, S, Tsagarakis, N, van Damme, M, ten Ham, R, Visser, LC & Wolf, S 2013, 'Variable impedance actuators: a review' Robotics and autonomous systems, vol. 61, no. 12, pp. 1601-1614. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.robot.2013.06.009

Variable impedance actuators: a review. / Vanderborght, B.; Albu-Schäffer, A.; Bicchi, A.; Burdet, E.; Caldwell, D.G.; Carloni, Raffaella; Catalano, M.; Eiberger, O.; Friedl, W.; Ganesh, G.; Garabini, M.; Grebenstein, M.; Grioli, G.; Haddadin, S.; Hoppner, H.; Jafari, A.; Laffranchi, M.; Lefeber, D.; Petit, F.; Stramigioli, S.; Tsagarakis, N.; van Damme, M.; ten Ham, R.; Visser, L.C.; Wolf, S.

In: Robotics and autonomous systems, Vol. 61, No. 12, 12.2013, p. 1601-1614.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Variable impedance actuators: a review

AU - Vanderborght, B.

AU - Albu-Schäffer, A.

AU - Bicchi, A.

AU - Burdet, E.

AU - Caldwell, D.G.

AU - Carloni, Raffaella

AU - Catalano, M.

AU - Eiberger, O.

AU - Friedl, W.

AU - Ganesh, G.

AU - Garabini, M.

AU - Grebenstein, M.

AU - Grioli, G.

AU - Haddadin, S.

AU - Hoppner, H.

AU - Jafari, A.

AU - Laffranchi, M.

AU - Lefeber, D.

AU - Petit, F.

AU - Stramigioli, S.

AU - Tsagarakis, N.

AU - van Damme, M.

AU - ten Ham, R.

AU - Visser, L.C.

AU - Wolf, S.

PY - 2013/12

Y1 - 2013/12

N2 - Variable Impedance Actuators (VIA) have received increasing attention in recent years as many novel applications involving interactions with an un- known and dynamic environment including humans require actuators with dynamics that are not well-achieved by classical stiff actuators. This paper presents an overview of the different VIAs developed and proposes a clas- sification based on the principles through which the variable stiffness and damping are achieved. The main classes are active impedance by control, inherent compliance and damping actuators, inertial actuators, and combi- nations of them, which are then further divided into subclasses. This classi- fication allows for designers of new devices to orientate and take inspiration and users of VIA’s to be guided in the design and implementation process for their targeted application.

AB - Variable Impedance Actuators (VIA) have received increasing attention in recent years as many novel applications involving interactions with an un- known and dynamic environment including humans require actuators with dynamics that are not well-achieved by classical stiff actuators. This paper presents an overview of the different VIAs developed and proposes a clas- sification based on the principles through which the variable stiffness and damping are achieved. The main classes are active impedance by control, inherent compliance and damping actuators, inertial actuators, and combi- nations of them, which are then further divided into subclasses. This classi- fication allows for designers of new devices to orientate and take inspiration and users of VIA’s to be guided in the design and implementation process for their targeted application.

KW - EWI-23578

KW - Variable impedance actuators

KW - IR-86985

KW - METIS-297776

KW - Soft robotics

U2 - 10.1016/j.robot.2013.06.009

DO - 10.1016/j.robot.2013.06.009

M3 - Article

VL - 61

SP - 1601

EP - 1614

JO - Robotics and autonomous systems

JF - Robotics and autonomous systems

SN - 0921-8890

IS - 12

ER -

Vanderborght B, Albu-Schäffer A, Bicchi A, Burdet E, Caldwell DG, Carloni R et al. Variable impedance actuators: a review. Robotics and autonomous systems. 2013 Dec;61(12):1601-1614. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.robot.2013.06.009