Variable stiffness actuators: A port-based analysis and a comparison of energy efficiency

L.C. Visser, Raffaella Carloni, Stefano Stramigioli

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    26 Citations (Scopus)
    269 Downloads (Pure)


    In this paper, a metric for comparing different designs of variable stiffness actuators is introduced. For the formulation of this metric, we focus on the energy efficiency of the actuators. In particular, we propose a metric that is a measure of how much energy is used by the actuator for changing the output stiffness. In order to facilitate the analysis of the energy usage, we present a port-based modeling framework, from which design criteria are derived for the optimization of the metric. Finally, the metric is interpreted in a comparison between existing actuators.
    Original languageUndefined
    Title of host publicationProceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Robotics and Automation, 2010
    Place of PublicationUSA
    Number of pages6
    ISBN (Print)978-1-4244-5038-1
    Publication statusPublished - May 2010
    Event2010 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, ICRA 2010 - Anchorage, United States
    Duration: 3 May 20107 May 2010

    Publication series

    PublisherIEEE Robotics and Automation Society Press
    ISSN (Print)1050-4729


    Conference2010 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, ICRA 2010
    Abbreviated titleICRA
    Country/TerritoryUnited States


    • METIS-270912
    • IR-72401
    • Robot Safety
    • CE-Advanced Robotics
    • Compliance and Impedance Control
    • EWI-18140
    • EC Grant Agreement nr.: FP7/231554
    • New Actuators for Robotics

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