Variable stiffness actuators: A port-based analysis and a comparison of energy efficiency

L.C. Visser, Raffaella Carloni, Stefano Stramigioli

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    26 Citations (Scopus)
    221 Downloads (Pure)


    In this paper, a metric for comparing different designs of variable stiffness actuators is introduced. For the formulation of this metric, we focus on the energy efficiency of the actuators. In particular, we propose a metric that is a measure of how much energy is used by the actuator for changing the output stiffness. In order to facilitate the analysis of the energy usage, we present a port-based modeling framework, from which design criteria are derived for the optimization of the metric. Finally, the metric is interpreted in a comparison between existing actuators.
    Original languageUndefined
    Title of host publicationProceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Robotics and Automation, 2010
    Place of PublicationUSA
    PublisherIEEE Robotics and Automation Society Press
    Number of pages6
    ISBN (Print)978-1-4244-5038-1
    Publication statusPublished - May 2010
    Event2010 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, ICRA 2010 - Anchorage, United States
    Duration: 3 May 20107 May 2010

    Publication series

    PublisherIEEE Robotics and Automation Society Press
    ISSN (Print)1050-4729


    Conference2010 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, ICRA 2010
    Abbreviated titleICRA
    Country/TerritoryUnited States


    • METIS-270912
    • IR-72401
    • Robot Safety
    • CE-Advanced Robotics
    • Compliance and Impedance Control
    • EWI-18140
    • EC Grant Agreement nr.: FP7/231554
    • New Actuators for Robotics

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