Wafer-scale fabrication of high-quality tunable gold nanogap arrays for surface-enhanced Raman scattering

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)
2 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

We report a robust and high-yield fabrication method for wafer-scale patterning of high-quality arrays of dense gold nanogaps, combining displacement Talbot lithography based shrink-etching with dry etching, wet etching, and thin film deposition techniques. By using the self-sharpening of <111>-oriented silicon crystal planes during the wet etching process, silicon structures with extremely smooth nanogaps are obtained. Subsequent conformal deposition of a silicon nitride layer and a gold layer results in dense arrays of narrow gold nanogaps. Using this method, we successfully fabricate high-quality Au nanogaps down to 10 nm over full wafer areas. Moreover, the gap spacing can be tuned by changing the thickness of deposited Au layers. Since the roughness of the template is minimized by the crystallographic etching of silicon, the roughness of the gold nanogaps depends almost exclusively on the roughness of the sputtered gold layers. Additionally, our fabricated Au nanogaps show a significant enhancement of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) signals of benzenethiol molecules chemisorbed on the structure surface, at an average enhancement factor up to 1.5 × 106.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)12152-12160
Number of pages9
JournalNanoscale
Volume11
Issue number25
Early online date10 Jun 2019
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 7 Jul 2019

Fingerprint

Gold
Raman scattering
Fabrication
Silicon
Wet etching
Surface roughness
Etching
Dry etching
Silicon nitride
Surface structure
Lithography
Thin films
Crystals
Molecules

Cite this

@article{23bf0d561d0b46bf89598b25b5032338,
title = "Wafer-scale fabrication of high-quality tunable gold nanogap arrays for surface-enhanced Raman scattering",
abstract = "We report a robust and high-yield fabrication method for wafer-scale patterning of high-quality arrays of dense gold nanogaps, combining displacement Talbot lithography based shrink-etching with dry etching, wet etching, and thin film deposition techniques. By using the self-sharpening of <111>-oriented silicon crystal planes during the wet etching process, silicon structures with extremely smooth nanogaps are obtained. Subsequent conformal deposition of a silicon nitride layer and a gold layer results in dense arrays of narrow gold nanogaps. Using this method, we successfully fabricate high-quality Au nanogaps down to 10 nm over full wafer areas. Moreover, the gap spacing can be tuned by changing the thickness of deposited Au layers. Since the roughness of the template is minimized by the crystallographic etching of silicon, the roughness of the gold nanogaps depends almost exclusively on the roughness of the sputtered gold layers. Additionally, our fabricated Au nanogaps show a significant enhancement of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) signals of benzenethiol molecules chemisorbed on the structure surface, at an average enhancement factor up to 1.5 × 106.",
author = "Hai Le-The and Lozeman, {Jasper J.A.} and Marta Lafuente and Pablo Mu{\~n}oz and Bomer, {Johan G.} and Hien Duy-Tong and Erwin Berenschot and {Van Den Berg}, Albert and Tas, {Niels R.} and Mathieu Odijk and Eijkel, {Jan C.T.}",
year = "2019",
month = "7",
day = "7",
doi = "10.1039/c9nr02215e",
language = "English",
volume = "11",
pages = "12152--12160",
journal = "Nanoscale",
issn = "2040-3364",
publisher = "Royal Society of Chemistry",
number = "25",

}

Wafer-scale fabrication of high-quality tunable gold nanogap arrays for surface-enhanced Raman scattering. / Le-The, Hai; Lozeman, Jasper J.A.; Lafuente, Marta; Muñoz, Pablo; Bomer, Johan G.; Duy-Tong, Hien; Berenschot, Erwin; Van Den Berg, Albert; Tas, Niels R.; Odijk, Mathieu; Eijkel, Jan C.T.

In: Nanoscale, Vol. 11, No. 25, 07.07.2019, p. 12152-12160.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Wafer-scale fabrication of high-quality tunable gold nanogap arrays for surface-enhanced Raman scattering

AU - Le-The, Hai

AU - Lozeman, Jasper J.A.

AU - Lafuente, Marta

AU - Muñoz, Pablo

AU - Bomer, Johan G.

AU - Duy-Tong, Hien

AU - Berenschot, Erwin

AU - Van Den Berg, Albert

AU - Tas, Niels R.

AU - Odijk, Mathieu

AU - Eijkel, Jan C.T.

PY - 2019/7/7

Y1 - 2019/7/7

N2 - We report a robust and high-yield fabrication method for wafer-scale patterning of high-quality arrays of dense gold nanogaps, combining displacement Talbot lithography based shrink-etching with dry etching, wet etching, and thin film deposition techniques. By using the self-sharpening of <111>-oriented silicon crystal planes during the wet etching process, silicon structures with extremely smooth nanogaps are obtained. Subsequent conformal deposition of a silicon nitride layer and a gold layer results in dense arrays of narrow gold nanogaps. Using this method, we successfully fabricate high-quality Au nanogaps down to 10 nm over full wafer areas. Moreover, the gap spacing can be tuned by changing the thickness of deposited Au layers. Since the roughness of the template is minimized by the crystallographic etching of silicon, the roughness of the gold nanogaps depends almost exclusively on the roughness of the sputtered gold layers. Additionally, our fabricated Au nanogaps show a significant enhancement of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) signals of benzenethiol molecules chemisorbed on the structure surface, at an average enhancement factor up to 1.5 × 106.

AB - We report a robust and high-yield fabrication method for wafer-scale patterning of high-quality arrays of dense gold nanogaps, combining displacement Talbot lithography based shrink-etching with dry etching, wet etching, and thin film deposition techniques. By using the self-sharpening of <111>-oriented silicon crystal planes during the wet etching process, silicon structures with extremely smooth nanogaps are obtained. Subsequent conformal deposition of a silicon nitride layer and a gold layer results in dense arrays of narrow gold nanogaps. Using this method, we successfully fabricate high-quality Au nanogaps down to 10 nm over full wafer areas. Moreover, the gap spacing can be tuned by changing the thickness of deposited Au layers. Since the roughness of the template is minimized by the crystallographic etching of silicon, the roughness of the gold nanogaps depends almost exclusively on the roughness of the sputtered gold layers. Additionally, our fabricated Au nanogaps show a significant enhancement of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) signals of benzenethiol molecules chemisorbed on the structure surface, at an average enhancement factor up to 1.5 × 106.

U2 - 10.1039/c9nr02215e

DO - 10.1039/c9nr02215e

M3 - Article

VL - 11

SP - 12152

EP - 12160

JO - Nanoscale

JF - Nanoscale

SN - 2040-3364

IS - 25

ER -