Water footprints of nations

A.K. Chapagain, A.Y. Hoekstra

Research output: Book/ReportReportOther research output

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Abstract

The water footprint concept has been developed in order to have an indicator of water use in relation to consumption of people. The water footprint of a country is defined as the volume of water needed for the production of the goods and services consumed by the inhabitants of the country. Closely linked to the water footprint concept is the virtual water concept. Virtual water is defined as the volume of water required to produce a commodity or service. International trade of commodities implies flows of virtual water over large distances. The water footprint of a nation can be assessed by taking the use of domestic water resources, subtract the virtual water flow that leaves the country and add the virtual water flow that enters the country. The internal water footprint of a nation is the volume of water used from domestic water resources to produce the goods and services consumed by the inhabitants of the country. The external water footprint of a country is the volume of water used in other countries to produce goods and services imported and consumed by the inhabitants of the country. The study aims to calculate the water footprint for each nation of the world for the period 1997-2001.
Original languageEnglish
Place of PublicationDelft
PublisherUnesco-IHE Institute for Water Education
Number of pages80
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2004

Publication series

NameValue of Water Research Report Series
PublisherUNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education
No.16

Fingerprint

water footprint
commodity
water flow
water
water resource
international trade
water use

Keywords

  • EC Grant Agreement nr.: FP7/261520
  • IR-77203

Cite this

Chapagain, A. K., & Hoekstra, A. Y. (2004). Water footprints of nations. (Value of Water Research Report Series; No. 16). Delft: Unesco-IHE Institute for Water Education.
Chapagain, A.K. ; Hoekstra, A.Y. / Water footprints of nations. Delft : Unesco-IHE Institute for Water Education, 2004. 80 p. (Value of Water Research Report Series; 16).
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Chapagain, AK & Hoekstra, AY 2004, Water footprints of nations. Value of Water Research Report Series, no. 16, Unesco-IHE Institute for Water Education, Delft.

Water footprints of nations. / Chapagain, A.K.; Hoekstra, A.Y.

Delft : Unesco-IHE Institute for Water Education, 2004. 80 p. (Value of Water Research Report Series; No. 16).

Research output: Book/ReportReportOther research output

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T1 - Water footprints of nations

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AU - Hoekstra, A.Y.

PY - 2004/11

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AB - The water footprint concept has been developed in order to have an indicator of water use in relation to consumption of people. The water footprint of a country is defined as the volume of water needed for the production of the goods and services consumed by the inhabitants of the country. Closely linked to the water footprint concept is the virtual water concept. Virtual water is defined as the volume of water required to produce a commodity or service. International trade of commodities implies flows of virtual water over large distances. The water footprint of a nation can be assessed by taking the use of domestic water resources, subtract the virtual water flow that leaves the country and add the virtual water flow that enters the country. The internal water footprint of a nation is the volume of water used from domestic water resources to produce the goods and services consumed by the inhabitants of the country. The external water footprint of a country is the volume of water used in other countries to produce goods and services imported and consumed by the inhabitants of the country. The study aims to calculate the water footprint for each nation of the world for the period 1997-2001.

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Chapagain AK, Hoekstra AY. Water footprints of nations. Delft: Unesco-IHE Institute for Water Education, 2004. 80 p. (Value of Water Research Report Series; 16).