Quantification of the multivalent interactions of influenza viruses binding at interfaces may provide ways to tackle key biological questions regarding influenza virulence and zoonoses. Yet, the deconvolution of the contributions of molecular and interfacial parameters, such as valency, interaction area, and receptor density, to the binding of whole viruses is hindered by difficulties in the direct determination of these parameters. We report here a chemical platform technology to study the binding of multivalent recombinant hemagglutinin (rHA) nanoparticles at artificial sialoglycan cell receptor-presenting interfaces in which all these parameters can be derived, thus allowing the desired full and quantitative binding analysis. SiO 2 substrates were functionalized with supported lipid bilayers containing a targeted and tunable fraction of a biotinylated lipid, followed by the adsorption of streptavidin and biotinylated polyvalent 2,3-or 2,6-sialyl lactosamine (SLN). rHA nanoparticles were used as a virus mimic to provide a good prediction of the number of interactions involved in binding. Low nanomolar affinities and selectivities for binding at the 2,6-SLN platforms were observed for rHA particles from three different virus variants. When fitting the data to a multivalency model, the nanomolar overall affinity appears to be achieved by 6-9 HA-sugar molecular interaction pairs, which individually present a rapid association/dissociation behavior. This dynamic behavior may be an essential biological attribute in the functioning of the influenza virus.
- influenza virus
- cell mimics