Carbon nanofiber (CNF) layers have been directly synthesized on nickel foils by chemical vapor deposition at 450°C using different H2 concentrations and reaction times. The addition of 5% H2 produces thicker, rougher and more porous CNF layers than when 1% H2 is used. The roughness and porosity increases with reaction time when 5%, 10% or 20% H2 are used; however, this effect is less pronounced when 1% H2 is used. CNFs are 50-55nm in diameter and have a fishbone type structure. We have studied the influence of CNF layer thickness, porosity and surface roughness on the interaction with water by measuring the contact angle. The water wetting properties of the samples are more significantly influenced by the CNF layer thickness than both surface roughness and porosity. When the CNF layer is thicker than ca. 20μm, the surface is hydrophobic and the contact angle increases with surface roughness and porosity. When the CNF layer is thinner than ca. 20μm, the surface is hydrophilic and the contact angle decreases with increasing surface roughness and porosity. This behavior is attributed to penetration of water, making contact with the hydrophilic C layer between the CNF layer and the foil.
- Carbon nanofibers
- Contact angle