What, where, and how measuring industrial symbiosis: A reasoned taxonomy of relevant indicators

Luca Fraccascia*, Ilaria Giannoccaro

*Corresponding author for this work

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During the last two decades, the literature devoted great attention to industrial symbiosis (IS) as an effective strategy to achieve environmental, economic, and social benefits. Accordingly, a wide range of numerical indicators – highly different among them for scope, definition, purpose, and applications – have been developed, to characterize and measure IS. The paper proposes a taxonomy of these indicators with the aim of facilitating their adoption and proper usage in practice. The taxonomy is developed on the basis of a literature review and is addressed to answer three main questions: (1) what to measure, (2) where to measure, and (3) how to measure. This offers a clear picture of available relevant IS indicators in terms of purpose, context, and methodology.
Original languageEnglish
Article number104799
JournalResources, conservation and recycling
Early online date10 Mar 2020
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print/First online - 10 Mar 2020



  • UT-Hybrid-D

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