In international literature, persons who recommend products or services in advertisements are often called ‘endorsers’. Also apparent from the literature is that the effectiveness of endorsers in advertisements particularly depends on two factors: the type of endorser and the type of product. Usually, three types of endorser are distinguished: celebrities, ‘regular’ consumers and experts. To date, research into the effects of (types of) endorsers has not only been fragmentary but has also yielded divergent effects. Without some theoretical backing, it is difficult to draw any conclusions or pass judgement on the effectiveness of endorsers. On the basis of product classifications that are theoretically underpinned, this thesis addresses and explains the effects and the actual deployment of (types of) endorsers. The choice was made for a theoretical anchor in two product classifications: 1) Nelson’s product classification in terms of search, experience and credence (SEC) products, and 2) the product classification in informative, affective, habit and pleasure products on the basis of the Foote, Cone and Belding grid (FCB-grid; Vaughn, 1986). The SEC classification is derived from Nelson’s Theory of Information Economics. This theory starts from an information asymmetry between manufacturers (or advertisers) and consumers of products. The FCB-grid classifies products according to the degree of ‘feeling’ and the consumer’s degree of involvement with the product. Ultimately, the product categorizations used in this thesis only partially explain the prevalence and effectiveness of (types of) endorsers. Of the two, the SEC classification was the best. Involvement is an element of the other categorization used in this research, the FCB classification, which does explain the effectiveness of (types of) endorsers for low-involvement products. Future research into the effectiveness of (types of) endorsers could take this SEC classification as a starting point, whereby also the low involvement of products could be inspected.
|Award date||14 Jan 2010|
|Place of Publication||Enschede|
|Publication status||Published - 14 Jan 2010|