When a game supports prevocational math education but integrated reflection does not

J. ter Vrugte*, T. de Jong, P. Wouters, S. Vandercruysse, J. Elen, H. van Oostendorp

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

29 Citations (Scopus)
11 Downloads (Pure)


The present study addressed the effectiveness of an educational math game for improving proportional reasoning in prevocational education, and examined the added value of support in the form of reflection. The study compared four conditions: the game with reflection prompts, the game with reflection prompts plus procedural information, the game with procedural information only and the game without additional support. It was found that students' proportional reasoning skill improved after playing the game. The game managed to target prevocational students with low prior knowledge, a group that has the potential to understand proportional reasoning but has not yet encountered the right learning situation to live up to their potential. However, it was also found that students need to be computational fluent to profit from the game. Furthermore, no added value of the support was found. The way the support was structured may have been too demanding for most of the students. The fact that the prevocational students (and specifically those with low prior knowledge) improved by playing the game is noteworthy, because the topic of proportional reasoning is demanding for this group of students who often have lower abilities as well as in some cases a high resistance to learning.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)462-480
Number of pages19
JournalJournal of computer assisted learning
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2015


  • Game-based learning
  • Math
  • Prevocational education
  • Reflection
  • 2023 OA procedure


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