It is well known that two-fluid models (TFMs) can successfully predict the hydrodynamics of Geldart B and D particles. However, up to now, TFM have failed to accurately describe the hydrodynamics of Geldart A particles inside bubbling gas-fluidized beds: Researchers have reported that bed expansions are over-predicted by as much as 70%. In this work we show—for the first time—that TFM can predict the correct bed expansion, without any artificial modifications, provided that a sufficiently fine grid size and small time step is used. This suggests that the previously reported failure of TFM is mainly due to the lack of scale resolution, and that from a modeling point of view there is no fundamental difference between Geldart A particles and Geldart B and D particles.
Wang, J., van der Hoef, M. A., & Kuipers, J. A. M. (2009). Why the two-fluid model fails to predict the bed expansion characteristics of Geldart A particles in gas-fluidized beds: A tentative answer. Chemical engineering science, 64(3), 622-625. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ces.2008.09.028