Wire and arc additive manufacturing (WAAM) has proven that it can produce medium to large components because of its high-rate deposition and potentially unlimited build size. Like all additive manufacturing (AM) technologies, however, an optimized process planning that provides uniform, defect-free deposition is key for the production of parts. Moreover, AM, particularly WAAM, is no longer just a prototyping technology, and most of today's attention is on its transformation to a viable and cost-effective production. With this transformation, a number of issues need to be addressed, including the accuracy and effectiveness of the manufactured components. Therefore, the emphasis should be on dimensional precision and surface finish in WAAM. This paper covers heat input and management concept, related to the resulting shrinkage, deformation, and residual stresses, which is particularly critical. In addition, we focus on process planning including build orientation, slicing, and path planning, as well as the definition of process parameter selection from a single track to multi-track and multilayer, and finally geometric features from a thin-wall to lattice structures with several case studies. Central to addressing component quality and accuracy, we summarize guiding designs and future needs through numerous WAAM-specific issues, which require for manufacturing of complex components.
- Direct metal deposition
- Geometric features
- Geometrical accuracy
- Heat management
- Wire and arc additive manufacturing