Women as change agents of the Bulgarian energy transition

Mariëlle Henriëtte Feenstra

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterAcademicpeer-review


Both gender equality and energy transition are topical issues in Bulgaria. The question to be answered in this chapter is whether women can be change agents for engendering a just energy transition. Three roles for women as change agents are addressed: producer, consumer and decision-maker. Many women as energy consumers face serious issues of not being able to pay for clean and sufficient energy sources, struggling with cold homes and having to use poor quality polluting wood for cooking and heating. This feminization of energy poverty is limiting a just energy transition in Bulgaria. Nevertheless, it is promising to see a strong representation of women as energy producers and decision-makers. Gender equality is strongly embedded in the Bulgarian legislation, as well as being enforced in national labour and social welfare policies and institutionalized by a governance structure at the national level. However, implementation and enforcement of gender equality legislation and policies are limited by weak political support and economic and demographic challenges that claim a higher priority. As such, a just engendered energy transition remains a challenge for Bulgaria.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationFrom Economic to Energy Transition
Subtitle of host publicationThree Decades of Transitions in Central and Eastern Europe
EditorsMatus Misik, Veronika Oravcova
PublisherPalgrave Macmillan
ISBN (Print)978-3-030-55085-1
Publication statusPublished - 2020


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