We examined whether word recognition accuracy and latency of words children encounter during primary school across the upper primary school grades can be predicted from word form (word length, mean Levenshtein distance, and mean frequency of neighbors), word meaning (free association network markers) and word exposure (corpus frequency and contextual diversity). As a measure of word recognition, 1454 children (M = 10.1 years, SD = 11.8 months, 52.4% girls) in grade 3, 4 and 5 of Dutch regular primary schools completed a lexical decision task. Confirmatory factor analyses showed that word characteristics could be reduced to latent constructs of form, meaning, and exposure. Structural equation models indicated that word form and exposure predicted word recognition accuracy, and that word recognition accuracy, word form, and word meaning predicted word recognition latency. The present study provided empirical evidence that word form, word meaning, and word exposure differentially predict word recognition accuracy and latency of words children encounter during primary school across the upper primary grades.