An analysis is presented of grain growth and densification of yttria-ceria stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystals (Y, Ce-TZPs) using both isothermal and non-isothermal techniques. The characteristics of Y, Ce-TZPs are compared to those of Y-TZP and Ce-TZP and the effect of increasing ceria concentration at constant yttria content is evaluated. During non-isothermal sintering two regimes are distinguished: below 900–1000°C the neck area increases strongly by surface diffusion accompanied by only very little densification and grain growth, in the temperature interval 900–1000°C to 1200°C the materials densify to 95% of the theoretical density via a grain boundary diffusion mechanism and grain growth accelerates. Dense materials with grain sizes of 0·15–0·20 μm can be prepared by isothermal sintering at 1100–1150°C. In Y, Ce-TZP it is yttrium that segregates to the grain boundaries at 1150–1400°C. The yttrium content of the grain boundaries in Y, Ce-TZP is independent of temperature and ceria-concentration under the investigated experimental conditions. Grain growth in dense TZP is controlled by a solute drag mechanism at elevated temperatures (>1200°C); this drag is highest for Y-TZP, absent for Ce-TZP and moderate for Y, Ce-TZP.
Boutz, M. M. R., Winnubst, A. J. A., & Burggraaf, A. J. (1994). Yttria-Ceria stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystals: Sintering, grain growth and grain boundary segregation. Journal of the European Ceramic Society, 13(2), 89-102. https://doi.org/10.1016/0955-2219(94)90106-6