Zwitterionic Functionalizable Scaffolds with Gyroid Pore Architecture for Tissue Engineering

Nina Yu Kostina, Sebastien Blanquer, Ognen Pop-Georgievski, Khosrow Rahimi, Barbara Dittrich, Anita Höcherl, Jiří Michálek, Dirk W. Grijpma, Cesar Rodriguez-Emmenegger* (Corresponding Author)

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)
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Stereolithography-assisted fabrication of hydrogels of carboxybetaine methacrylamide (CBMAA) and a α,ω-methacrylate poly(d,l-lactide-block-ethylene glycol-block- d,l-lactide) (MA-PDLLA-PEG-PDLLA-MA) telechelic triblock macromer is presented. This technique allows printing complex structures with gyroid interconnected porosity possessing extremely high specific area. Hydrogels are characterized by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM). The copolymerization with zwitterionic comonomer leads hydrogels with high equilibrium water content (EWC), up to 700% while maintaining mechanical robustness. The introduction of carboxybetaine yields excellent resistance to nonspecific protein adsorption while providing a facile way for specific biofunctionalization with a model protein, fluorescein isothiocyanate labeled bovine serum albumin (BSA). The homogeneous protein immobilization across the hydrogel pores prove the accessibility to the innermost pore volumes. The remarkably low protein adsorption combined with the interconnected nature of the porosity allowing fast diffusion of nutrient and waste product and the mimicry of bone trabecular, makes the hydrogels presented here highly attractive for tissue engineering.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1800403
JournalMacromolecular bioscience
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2019


  • UT-Hybrid-D
  • Hydrogels
  • Stereolithography
  • Zwitterionic
  • Gyroid pore structure
  • 22/4 OA procedure


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